ICAR’s All India Entrance Examination for admission TO
BACHELOR DEGREE PROGRAMMES (AIEEA-ug-2018)
Unit-1:Physical World and Measurement
Physics scope and excitement; nature of physical laws; Physics, technology and society. Need for measurement: Units of measurement; systems of units; SI units, fundamental and derived units. Length, mass and time measurements; accuracy and precision of measuring instruments; errors in measurement; significant figures. Dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications.
Frame of reference. Motion in a straight line: Position-time graph, speed and velocity. Uniform and non-uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity. Uniformly accelerated motion: velocity-time graph, position-time graphs, relations for uniformly accelerated motion (graphical treatment). Elementary concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion. Scalar and vector quantities: Position and displacement vectors, general vectors and notation, equality of vectors, multiplication of vectors by a real number; addition and subtraction of vectors. Relative velocity. Unit vector; Resolution of a vector in a plane - rectangular components. Motion in a plane. Cases of uniform velocity and uniform acceleration-projectile motion. Uniform circular motion. Motion of objects in three dimensional space. Motion of objects in three dimensional space.
Unit-3:Laws of Motion
Intuitive concept of force. Inertia, Newton’s first law of motion; momentum and Newton’s second law of motion; impulse; Newton’s third law of motion. Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications. Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction. Dynamics of uniform circular motion: Centripetal force, examples of circular motion (vehicle on level circular road, vehicle on banked road).
Unit-4: Work, Energy and Power
Scalar product of vectors. Work done by a constant force and a variable force; kinetic energy, work-energy theorem, power. Notion of potential energy, potential energy of a spring, conservative forces: conservation of mechanical energy (kinetic and potential energies); non-conservative forces: elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions.
Unit-5: Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body
Centre of mass of a two-particle system, momentum conversation and centre of mass motion. Centre of mass of a rigid body; centre of mass of uniform rod. Vector product of vectors; moment of a force, torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum with some examples. Equilibrium of rigid bodies, rigid body rotation and equations of rotational motion, comparison of linear and rotational motions; moment of inertia, radius of gyration. Values of moments of inertia for simple geometrical objects. Statement of parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications.
Keplar’s laws of planetary motion. The universal law of gravitation. Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth. Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential. Escape velocity. Orbital velocity of a satellite. Geo-stationary satellites.
Unit-7: Properties of Bulk Matter
Elastic behaviour, Stress-strain relationship, Hooke’s law, Young’s modulus, bulk modulus, shear, modulus of rigidity. Pressure due to a fluid column; Pascal’s law and its applications (hydraulic lift and hydraulic brakes). Effect of gravity on fluid pressure. Viscosity, Stokes’ law, terminal velocity, Reynold’s number, streamline and turbulent flow. Bernoulli’s theorem and its applications. Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, application of surface tension ideas to drops, bubbles and capillary rise.
Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; specific heat - calorimetry; change of state - latent heat. Heat transfer-conduction, convection and radiation, thermal conductivity, Newton’s law of cooling
Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature (zeroth law of thermodynamics). Heat, work and internal energy. First law of thermodynamics. Second law of thermodynamics: reversible and irreversible processes. Heat engines and refrigerators.
Unit-9: Behaviour of Perfect Gas and Kinetic Theory
Equation of state of a perfect gas, work done on compressing a gas. Kinetic theory of gases - assumptions, concept of pressure. Kinetic energy and temperature; rms speed of gas molecules; degrees of freedom, law of equipartition of energy (statement only) and application to specific heats of gases; concept of mean free path, Avogadro’s number.
Unit-10: Oscillations and Waves
Periodic motion - period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions. Simple Harmonic Motion (S.H.M) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a spring–restoring force and force constant; energy in S.H.M.- kinetic and potential energies; simple pendulum– derivation of expression for its time period; free, forced and damped oscillations, resonance. Wave motion. Longitudinal and transverse waves, speed of wave motion. Displacement relation for a progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics, Beats, Doppler effect.
Electric Charges; Conservation of charge, Coulomb’s law - force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution. Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines; electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole; torque on a dipole in uniform electric field. Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside). Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field. Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarization, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor. Van de Graaff generator.
Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity, mobility and their relation with electric current; Ohm’s law, electrical resistance, V - I characteristics (linear and non-linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity. Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance. Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel. Kirchoff’s laws and simple applications. Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge. Potentiometer - principle and its applications to measure potential difference and for comparing emf of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell.
Unit-13:Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism
Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment. Biot - Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop. Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire, straight and toroidal solenoids. Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron. Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.
Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron. Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis. Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements. Para-, dia- and ferro - magnetic substances, with examples. Electromagnets and factors affecting their strengths. Permanent magnets.
Unit-14: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents
Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s law, induced emf and current; Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents. Self and mutual inductance. Need for displacement current. Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/voltage; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, wattless current. AC generator and transformer.
Displacement current, Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas only). Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.
Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lensmaker’s formula. Magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact. Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism. Scattering of light - blue colour of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset. Optical instruments: Human eye, image formation and accommodation, correction of eye defects (myopia, hypermetropia, presbyopia and astigmatism) using lenses. Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers. Wave optics: wave front and Huygens’ principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygens’ principle. Interference, Young’s double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light. Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum. Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes. Polarisation, plane polarised light; Brewster’s law, uses of plane polarised light and Polaroids.
Unit-17: Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation
Dual nature of radiation. Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric equation-particle nature of light. Matter waves-wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation. Davisson-Germer experiment.
Unit-18: Atoms & Nuclei
Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum. Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones. Radioactivity, alpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law. Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number; nuclear fission, nuclear reactor, nuclear fusion.
Semiconductors; semiconductor diode – I -V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier; I - V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell, and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator. Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator. Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR). Transistor as a switch.
Unit-20: Communication Systems
Elements of a communication system (block diagram only); bandwidth of signals (speech, TV and digital data); bandwidth of transmission medium. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere, sky and space wave propagation. Need for modulation. Production and detection of an amplitude-modulated wave.
Unit-1: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry
General Introduction: Importance and scope of chemistry. Historical approach to particulate nature of matter, laws of chemical combination. Dalton’s atomic theory: concept of elements, atoms and molecules. Atomic and molecular masses mole concept and molar mass: percentage composition, empirical and molecular formula chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry.
Unit-2: Solid State
Classification of solids based on different binding forces: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea), unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties.
Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties – relative lowering of vapour pressure, elevation of Boiling Point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass.
Unit-4: Structure of Atom
Discovery of electron, proton and neutron; atomic number, isotopes and isobars. Thomson’s model and its limitations, Rutherford’s model and its limitations. Bohr’s model and its limitations, concept of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and light, de Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concept of orbitals, quantum numbers, shapes of s, p, and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals - Aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principle and Hund’s rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals.
Unit-5: Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties
Significance of classification, brief history of the development of periodic table, modern periodic law and the present form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elements -atomic radii, ionic radii. Ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electro negativity, valence.
Unit-6: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure
Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond: bond parameters. Lewis structure, polar character of covalent bond, covalent character of ionic bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of covalent molecules, VSEPR (Valence shell electron pair repulsion) theory, concept of hybridization, involving s, p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbital; theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only), hydrogen bond.
Unit-7: States of Matter: Gases and Liquids
Three states of matter. Intermolecular interactions, type of bonding, melting and boiling points. Role of gas laws in elucidating the concept of the molecule, Boyle’s law. Charles law, Gay Lussac’s law, Avogadro’s law. Ideal behaviour, empirical derivation of gas equation, Avogadro’s number. Ideal gas equation. Derivation from ideal behaviour, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature. Liquid State - Vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only, no mathematical derivations).
Concepts of System, types of systems, surroundings. Work, heat, energy, extensive and intensive properties, state functions. First law of thermodynamics - internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat, measurement of DU and DH, Hess’s law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of: bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation. Phase transformation, ionization, and solution. Introduction of entropy as a state function, free energy change for spontaneous and non-spontaneous processes, criteria for equilibrium.
Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of mass action, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium - Le Chatelier’s principle; ionic equilibrium - ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, concept of pH. Hydrolysis of salts. Buffer solutions, solubility product, common ion effect.
Unit-10: Redox Reactions
Concept of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, balancing redox reactions, applications of redox reactions.
Position of hydrogen in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen; hydrides - ionic, covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water, heavy water; hydrogen peroxide-preparation, properties and structure; hydrogen as a fuel.
Unit-12: s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals)
Group 1 and Group 2 elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens; uses.
Unit-13: Preparation and properties of some important compounds
Sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate, biological importance of sodium and potassium. CaO, CaCO3 and industrial use of lime and limestone, biological importance of Mg and Ca
Unit-14: Some p-Block Elements
General Introduction to p-Block Elements: Group 13 elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence. Variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of first element of the group; Boron- physical and chemical properties, some important compounds: borax, boric acids, boron hydrides. Aluminum: uses, reactions with acids and alkalies.
Unit-15: Group 14 elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous behavior of first element, Carbon - catenation, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties; uses of some important compounds: oxides. Important compounds of silicon and a few uses: silicon tetrachloride, silicones, silicates and zeolites.
Unit-16: Organic Chemistry
Some Basic Principles and Techniques
General introduction, methods of qualitative and quantitative analysis, classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds, Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyper conjugation. Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: free radicals, carbocations, carbanions; electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions
Classification of hydrocarbons
Alkanes - Nomenclature, isomerism, conformations (ethane only), physical properties, chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation, combustion and pyrolysis.
Alkenes - Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethene) geometrical isomerism, physical properties, methods of preparation; chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markovnikov’s addition and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism of electrophilic addition.
Alkynes - Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethyne), physical properties. Methods of preparation, chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of - hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water.
Aromatic hydrocarbons: Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature; benzene: resonance, aromaticity; chemical properties: mechanism of electrophilic substitution. – nitration, sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel-Craft’s alkylation and acylation: directive influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene; carcinogenicity and toxicity.
Conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity variations of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch’s Law, electrolysis and laws of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell – electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells; lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells, fuel cells; corrosion.
Unit-19: Chemical Kinetics
Rate of a reaction (average and instantaneous), factors affecting rate of reaction; concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction; rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions); concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment)
Unit-20: Surface Chemistry
Adsorption – physisorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids; catalysis : homogenous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity: enzyme catalysis; colloidal state: distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspensions; lyophilic, lyophobic, multimolecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation; emulsion – types of emulsions.
Unit-21: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
Principles and methods of extraction - concentration, oxidation, reduction electrolytic method and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron.
Unit-22: p-Block Elements
Group 15 elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; nitrogen - preparation, properties and uses; compounds of nitrogen: preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen (structure only); Phosphorous-allotropic forms; compounds of phosphorous: preparation and properties of phosphine, halides (PCl3, PCl5) and oxoacids
Unit-23: Group 16 elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; dioxygen: preparation, properties and uses; simple oxides; Ozone. Sulphur - allotropic forms; compounds of sulphur: preparation, properties and uses of sulphur dioxide; sulphuric acid: industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses, oxoacids of sulphur (structures only).
Unit-24: Group 17 elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens: preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, oxoacids of halogens (structures only).
Unit-25: Group 18 elements
General introduction, electronic configuration. Occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses.
Unit-26: d and f Block Elements
General introduction ,electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals – metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.
Lanthanoids - electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction.
Actinoids - Electronic configuration, oxidation states.
Unit-27: Coordination Compounds
Coordination compounds - Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds. bonding; isomerism, importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and biological systems).
Unit-28: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of C-X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions.
Haloarenes: Nature of C-X bond, substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for monosubstituted compounds only) Uses and environmental effects of - dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT.
Unit-29: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only); identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration, uses of methanol and ethanol. Phenols : Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophillic substitution reactions, uses of phenols. Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses.
Unit-30: Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes; uses.
Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses.
Unit-31: Organic compounds containing Nitrogen
Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.
Cyanides and Isocyanides - will be mentioned at relevant places in context.
Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.
Carbohydrates- Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccharide (glucose and fructose), oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen); importance.
Proteins - Elementary idea of á-amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, structure of amines-primary, secondary, tertiary structure and quaternary structures (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes.
Vitamins - Classification and functions.
Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA .
Classification - natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation), copolymerization. Some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polythene, nylon, polyesters, Bakelite, rubber.
Unit-34: Environmental Chemistry
Environmental pollution - air, water and soil pollution, chemical reactions in atmosphere, smog, major atmospheric pollutants; acid rain, ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer, greenhouse effect and global warming - pollution due to industrial wastes; green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution, strategy for control of environmental pollution.
Unit-35: Chemistry in Everyday life
1. Chemicals in medicines - analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines.
2. Chemicals in food - preservatives, artificial sweetening agents.
3. Cleansing agents - soaps and detergents, cleansing action.
BIOLOGY (BOTANY AND ZOOLOGY)
Unit : 1 The Living World
Nature and scope of Biology. Methods of Biology. Our place in the universe. Laws that govern the universe and life. Level of organization. Cause and effect relationship.
Being alive. What does it mean? Present approaches to understand life processes, molecular approach; life as an expression of energy; steady state and homeostasis; self duplication and survival; adaptation; death as a positive part of life.
Origin of life and its maintenance. Origin and diversity of life. Physical and chemical principles that maintain life processes. The living crust and interdependence. The positive and negative aspects of progress in
biological sciences. The future of the living world, identification of human responsibility in shaping our future.
Unit : 2 Unit of Life
Cell as a unit of life. Small biomolecules; water, minerals, mono and oligosaccharides, lipids, amino acids, nucleotides and their chemistry, cellular location and function. Macromolecules in cells - their chemistry, cellular location and functional significance. Polysaccharides, proteins and nucleic acids. Enzymes; chemical nature, classification, mechanism in action-enzyme complex, allosteric modulation (brief), irreversible activation. Biomembranes; Fluid mosaic model of membrane, role in transport, recognition of external information (brief). Structural organization of the cell; light and electron microscopic views of cell, its organelles and their functions; nucleus mitochondria, chloroplasts, endoplasmic reticulum. Golgi complex, lysosomes, microtubules, cell wall, cilia and flagella, vacuoles, cell inclusions. A general account of cellular respiration. Fermentation, biological oxidation (A cycle outline), mitochondrial electron transport chain, high energy bonds and oxidative phosphorylation, cell reproduction; Process of mitosis and meiosis.
Unit : 3 Diversity of Life
Introduction. The enormous variety of living things, the need for classification to cope with this variety; taxonomy and phylogeny; shortcomings of a two kingdom classification as plants and animals; the five kingdom classification, Monera, Protista, Plantae, Fungi and Animalia; the basic features of five kingdom classification. modes of obtaining nutrition-autotrophs and heterotrophs. Life style producers, consumers and decomposers. Unicellularity and multicellularity, phylogenetic relationships. Concepts of species, taxon and categories - hierarchical levels of classification; binomial nomenclature; principles of classification and nomenclature; identification and nature of viruses and bacteriophages; kingdom Monera-archeabacteria - life in extreme environments; Bacteria, Actinomycetes, Cyanobacteria. Examples & illustration of autotrophic and heterotrophic life; mineralizes-nitrogen fixers; Monera in cycling matter; symbiotic forms; disease producers. Kingdom Protista-Eukaryotic unicellular organisms, development of flagella and cilia; beginning of mitosis; syngamy and sex. Various life styles shown in the major phyla. Evolutionary precursors of complex life forms. Diatoms, dinoflagellates, slime moulds, protozons; symbiotic forms. Plant kingdom-complex autotrophs, red brown and green algae; conquest of land, bryophytes, ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms. Vascularization; development of flower, fruit and seed. Kingdom fungi-lower fungi (Zygomycetes), higher fungi (Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes); the importance of fungi. Decomposers; parasitic forms; lichens and mycorrhizae. Animal kingdom-animal body pattern and symmetry. The development of body cavity in invertebrate vertebrate physia. Salient features with reference to habitat and example of phylum porifera, coelenterata, helminthis, annelids, mollusca, arthropoda, echinoderms; chordata - (classes-fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals) highlighting major characters.
Unit : 4 Organisms and Environment
Species: Origin and concept of species population, interaction between environment and population community. Biotic community, interaction between different species, biotic stability. Changes in the community. Succession. Ecosystem; interaction between biotic and abiotic components; major ecosystems, manmade ecosystem- Agro ecosystem. Biosphere; flow of energy, trapping of solar energy, energy pathway, food chain, food web, biogeochemical cycles, calcium and sulphur, ecological imbalance and its consequences. Conservation of natural resources; renewable and non-renewable (in brief). Water and land management, wasteland development. Wild life and forest conservation; causes for the extinction of some wild life, steps taken to conserve the remaining species, concept of endangered species-Indian examples, conservation of forests; Indian forests, importance of forests, hazards of deforestation, concept of afforestation. Environmental pollution; air and water pollution, sources, major pollutants of big cities of our country, their effects and methods of control, pollution due to nuclear fallout and waste disposal, effect and control, noise pollution; sources and effects.
Unit : 5 Multicellularity : Structure and Function - Plant Life
Form and function. Tissue system in flowering plants; meristematic and permanent. Mineral nutrition-essential elements, major functions of different elements, passive and active uptake of minerals. Modes of nutrition, transport of solutes and water in plants. Photosynthesis; photochemical and biosynthetic phases, diversity in photosynthetic pathways, photosynthetic electron transport and photophosphorylation, photorespiration. Transpiration and exchange of gases. Stomatal mechanism. Osmoregulation in plants: water relations in plant cells, water potential. Reproduction and development in Angiosperms; asexual and sexual reproduction. Structure and functions of flower: development of male and female gametophytes in angiosperms, pollination, fertilization and development of endosperm, embryo seed and fruit. Differentiation and organ formation. Plant hormones and growth regulation; action of plant hormones in relation to seed dormancy and germination, apical dominance, senescence and abscission. Applications of synthetic growth regulators. A brief account of growth and movement in plants.
Unit : 6 Multicellularity : Structure and Function - Animal Life
Animal tissues, epithelial, connective, muscular, nerve. Animal nutrition, organs of digestion and digestive process, nutritional requirements for carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals and vitamins; nutritional imbalances and deficiency diseases. Gas exchange and transport: Pulmonary gas exchange and organs involved, transport of gases in blood, gas exchange in aqueous media circulation: closed and open vascular systems, structure and pumping action of heart, arterial blood pressure, lymph. Excretion and osomoregulation. Ammonotelism, Ureotelism, urecotelism, excretion of water and urea with special reference to man. Role of kidney in regulation of plasma, osmolarity on the basis of nephron structure, skin and lungs in excretion. Hormonal coordination; hormones of mammals, role of hormones as messengers and regulators. Nervous coordination, central autonomic and peripheral nervous systems, receptors, effectors, reflex action, basic physiology of special senses, integrative control by neuroendocrinal systems. Locomotion: joints, muscle movements, types of skeletal muscles according to types of movement, basic aspects of human skeleton. Reproduction; human reproduction, female reproductive cycles. Embryonic development in mammals (upto three germs layers), growth, repair and ageing.
Unit : 7 Continuity of Life
Heredity and variation: Introduction, Mendel’s experiments with peas and concepts of factors. Mendel’s laws of inheritance. Genes: Packaging of heredity material in prokaryotes-bacterial chromosome and plasmid; and eukaryote chromosomes. Extranuclear genes, viral genes. Linkage (genetic) maps. Sex determination and sex linkage. Genetic material and its replication, gene manipulation. Gene expression; genetic code, transcription, translation, gene regulation. Molecular basis of differentiation.
Unit : 8 Origin and Evolution of Life
Origin of life: living and non-living, chemical evolution, organic evolution; Oparin ideas, Miller-Urey experiments. Interrelationship among living organisms and evidences of evolution: fossil records including geological scale, Morphological evidence - hematology, vestigeal organs, embryological similarities and biogeographical evidence.
Darwin’s two major contributions. Common origin of living organisms and recombination as source of variability, selection and variation, adaptation (Lederberg’s replica plating experiment for indirect selection of bacterial mutants), reproductive isolation, speciation. Role of selection, change and drift in determining composition of population. Selected examples: industrial melanism; drug resistance, mimicry, malaria in relation to G-6-PD deficiency and sickle cell disease. Human evolution: Palcontological evidence, man’s place among mammals. Brief idea of Dryopithecus, Australopithecus, Homo erectus, H.neanderthlensis, Cro-Magnon man and Homo sapiens. Human chromosomes, similarity in different racial groups. Comparison with chromosomes of non-human primates to indicate common origin; Cultural vs. biological evolution.
Mutation: origin and types of mutation, their role in speciation.
Unit : 9 Application of Biology
Introduction, role of biology, in the amelioration of human problems. Domestication of plant- a historical account, improvement of crop plants; Principles of plant breeding and plant introduction. Use of fertilizers, their economic and ecological aspects.
Use of pesticides: advantages and hazards. Biological methods of pest control. Crops today. Current concerns, gene pools and genetic conservation. Underutilized crops with potential uses of oilseeds, medicines, beverages, spices, fodder, New crops-Leucaena (Subabul), Jojoba, Guayule, winged bean, etc. Biofertilizers - green manure, crop residues and nitrogen fixation (symbiotic, non symbiotic). Applications of tissue culture and genetic engineering in crops. Domestication and introduction of animals. Livestock, poultry, fisheries (fresh water, marine, aquaculture). Improvement of animals: principles of animal breeding. Major animal diseases and their control. Insects and their products (silk, honey, wax and lac). Bioenergy-biomass, wood (combustion; gasification, ethanol). Cow dung cakes, gobar gas, plants as sources of hydrocarbons for producing petroleum, ethanol from starch and lignocellulose. Biotechnology, application in health and agriculture, genetically modified (GM) organisms, bio-safety issues. A brief historical account-manufacture of cheese. yoghurt, alcohol, yeast, vitamins, organic acids, antibiotics, steroids, dextrins. Scaling up laboratory findings to Industrial production, sewage treatment. Production of insulin, human growth hormones, interferon. Communicable diseases including STD and diseases spread through ‘blood transfusion (hepatitis, AIDS, etc) Immune response, vaccine and antisera. Allergies and Inflammation. Inherited diseases and dysfunctions, sex-linked diseases, genetic incompatibilities, and genetic counseling. Cancer-major types, causes, diagnosis and treatment. Tissue and organ transplantation. Community health services and measures; blood banks; mental health, smoking, alcoholism and drug addiction-physiological symptoms and control measures. Industrial wastes, toxicology, pollution-related diseases. Biomedical engineering - spare parts for man, instruments for diagnosis of diseases and care. Human population related diseases. Human population, growth, problems and control, inequality between sexes, control measures; test-tube babies aminocentesis. Future of Biology.
Unit-1: Sets and Functions
1. Sets : Sets and their representations. Empty set. Finite & Infinite sets. Equal sets. Subsets, Subsets of the set of real numbers especially intervals (with notations). Power set. Universal set. Venn diagrams. Union and Intersection of sets. Difference of sets. Complement of a set.
2. Relations & Functions: Ordered pairs, Cartesian product of sets. Number of elements in the cartesian product of two finite sets. Cartesian product of the reals with itself (upto R x R x R). Definition of relation, Types of relations: reflexive, symmetric, transitive and equivalence relations. One to one and onto functions, composite functions, inverse of a function. Binary operations, Pictorial representation of a function, domain. Co-domain and range of a relation. Function as a special kind of relation from one set to another. Real valued function of the real variable, domain and range of these functions, constant, identity, polynomial, rational, modulus, signum and greatest integer functions with their graphs. Sum, difference, product and quotients of functions.
3. Trigonometric Functions: Positive and negative angles. Measuring angles in radians & in degrees and conversion from one measure to another. Definition of trigonometric functions with the help of unit circle. Truth of the identity sin2x + cos2x=1, for all x. Signs of trigonometric functions and sketch of their graphs. Expressing sin (x+y) and cos (x+y) in terms of sinx, siny, cosx&cosy. Deducing the identities like the following:
Identities related to sin2x, cos2x, tan2x, sin3x, cos3x and tan3x. General solution of trigonometric equations of the type sin è ?= sin á, cos è ?= cos á ?and tan è ?= tan á.
Inverse Trigonometric Functions: Definition, range, domain, principal value branches. Graphs of inverse trigonometric functions. Elementary properties of inverse trigonometric functions.
Properties of triangles, including centroid, incentre, circum-centre and orthocentre, Solution of triangles. Heights and Distances.
1. Principle of Mathematical Induction: Processes of the proof by induction, motivating the application of the method by looking at natural numbers as the least inductive subset of real numbers. The principle of mathematical induction and simple applications.
2. Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations: Need for complex numbers, especially -1, to be motivated by inability to solve every quadratic equation. Brief description of algebraic properties of complex numbers. Argand plane and polar representation of complex numbers. Statement of Fundamental Theorem of Algebra, solution of quadratic equations in the complex number system.
3. Linear Inequalities: Linear inequalities. Algebraic solutions of linear inequalities in one variable and their representation on the number line. Graphical solution of linear inequalities in two variables. Solution of system of linear inequalities in two variables- graphically.
4. Permutations & Combinations: Fundamental principle of counting. Factorial n. (n!). Permutations and combinations, derivation of formulae and their connections, simple applications.
5. Binomial Theorem: History, statement and proof of the binomial theorem for positive integral indices. Pascal’s triangle, General and middle term in binomial expansion, simple applications.
6. Sequence and Series: Sequence and Series. Arithmetic progression (A. P.). arithmetic mean (A.M.) Geometric progression (G.P.), general term of a G.P., sum of n terms of a G.P., geometric mean (G.M.), relation between A.M. and G.M. Sum to n terms of the special series Ón, Ón2 and Ón3.
7. Matrices: Concept, notation, order, equality, types of matrices, zero matrix, transpose of a matrix, symmetric and skew symmetric matrices. Addition, multiplication and scalar multiplication of matrices, simple properties of addition, multiplication and scalar multiplication. Non-commutativity of multiplication of matrices and existence of non-zero matrices whose product is the zero matrix (restrict to square matrices of order 2). Concept of elementary row and column operations. Invertible matrices and proof of the uniqueness of inverse, if it exists.
8. Determinants: Determinant of a square matrix (up to 3 x 3 matrices), properties of determinants, minors, cofactors and applications of determinants in finding the area of a triangle. Adjoint and inverse of a square matrix. Consistency, inconsistency and number of solutions of system of linear equations by examples, solving system of linear equations in two or three variables (having unique solution) using inverse of a matrix.
Unit-3: Coordinate Geometry
1. Straight Lines:Slope of a line and angle between two lines. Various forms of equations of a line: parallel to axes, point-slope form, slope-intercept form, two-point form, intercepts form and normal form. General equation of a line. Distance of a point from a line.
2. Conic Sections: Sections of a cone: circle, ellipse, parabola, hyperbola, a point, a straight line and pair of intersecting lines as a degenerated case of a conic section. Standard equations and simple properties of parabola, ellipse and hyperbola. Standard equation of a circle.
3. Introduction to Three-dimensional Geometry: Coordinate axes and coordinate planes in three dimensions. Coordinates of a point. Distance between two points and section formula.
1. Limits and Derivatives: Derivative introduced as rate of change both as that of distance function and geometrically, intuitive idea of limit. Definition of derivative, relate it to slope of tangent of the curve, derivative of sum, difference, product and quotient of functions. Derivatives of polynomial and trigonometric functions.
2. Continuity and Differentiability: Continuity and differentiability, derivative of composite functions, chain rule, derivatives of inverse trigonometric functions, derivative of implicit function. Concept of exponential and logarithmic functions and their derivative. Logarithmic differentiation. Derivative of functions expressed in parametric forms. Second order derivatives. Rolle’s and Lagrange’s Mean Value Theorems (without proof) and their geometric interpretations.
3. Applications of Derivatives: Applications of derivatives: rate of change, increasing/decreasing functions, tangents &normals, approximation, maxima and minima (first derivative test motivated geometrically and second derivative test given as a provable tool). Simple problems.
4. Integrals: Integration as inverse process of differentiation. Integration of a variety of functions by substitution, by partial fractions and by parts; only simple integrals of the type
to be evaluated. Definite integrals as a limit of a sum, Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (without proof). Basic properties of definite integrals and evaluation of definite integrals.
5. Applications of the Integrals: Applications in finding the area under simple curves, especially lines, areas of circles/ parabolas/ellipses (in standard form only), area between the two above said curves.
6.Differential Equations: Definition, order and degree, general and particular solutions of a differential equation. Formation of differential equation whose general solution is given. Solution of differential equations by method of separation of variables, homogeneous differential equations of first order and first degree. Solutions of linear
differential equation of the type:, where p and q are functions of x.
Unit-5: Vectors and Three-Dimensional Geometry
1. Vectors: Vectors and scalars, magnitude and direction of a vector. Direction cosines/ratios of vectors. Types of vectors (equal, unit, zero, parallel and collinear vectors), position vector of a point, negative of a vector, components of a vector, addition of vectors, multiplication of a vector by a scalar, position vector of a point dividing a line segment in a given ratio. Scalar (dot) product of vectors, projection of a vector on a line. Vector (cross) product of vectors.
2. Three-dimensional Geometry: Direction cosines/ratios of a line joining two points. Cartesian and vector equation of a line, coplanar and skew lines, shortest distance between two lines. Cartesian and vector equation of a plane. Angle between (i) two lines, (ii) two planes. (iii) a line and a plane. Distance of a point from a plane.
Unit-6: Linear Programming
Linear Programming: Introduction, definition of related terminology such as constraints, objective function, optimization, different types of linear programming (L.P.) problems, mathematical formulation of L.P. problems, graphical method of solution for problems in two variables, feasible and infeasible regions, feasible and infeasible solutions, optimal feasible solutions (up to three non-trivial constraints).
Unit-7: Mathematical Reasoning
Mathematical Reasoning: Mathematically acceptable statements. Connecting words/ phrases - consolidating the understanding of “if and only if (necessary and sufficient) condition”, “implies”, “and/or”, “implied by”, “and”, “or”, “there exists” and their use through variety of examples related to real life and Mathematics. Validating the statements involving the connecting words, difference between contradiction, converse and contrapositive.
Unit-8: Statistics & Probability
1. Statistics: Measures of central tendency,mean, median and mode from ungrouped/grouped data. Measures of dispersion, mean deviation, variance and standard deviation from ungrouped/grouped data. Correlation, regression lines.
2. Probability: Random experiments: outcomes, sample spaces (set representation). Events: occurrence of events, ‘not’, ‘and’ and ‘or’ events, exhaustive events, mutually exclusive events Axiomatic (set theoretic) probability, Probability of an event, probability of ‘not’, ‘and’ & ‘or’ events. Multiplication theorem on probability. Conditional probability, independent events, total probability, Bayes’ theorem, Random variable and its probability distribution, mean and variance of stochastic variable. Repeated independent (Bernoulli) trials and Binomial distribution.
Introduction, basic concepts and basic laws of mechanics, force, resultant of forces acting at a point, parallelogram law of forces, resolved parts of a force, Equilibrium of a particle under three concurrent forces. Triangle law of forces and its converse, Lami’s theorem and its converse, Two Parallel forces, like and unlike parallel forces, couple and its moment.
Speed and velocity, average speed, instantaneous speed, acceleration and retardation, resultant of two velocities. Motion of a particle along a line, moving with constant acceleration. Motion under gravity. Laws of motion, Projectile motion.
Unit-1: Agrometeorology, Genetics and Plant Breeding, Biochemistry and Microbiology
Agrometerology: Elements of Weather-rainfall, temperature, humidity, wind velocity, Sunshine weather forecasting, climate change in relation to crop production.
Genetics & Plant Breeding : (a) Cell and its structure, cell division-mitosis and meiosis and their significance (b) Organisation of the genetic materials in chromosomes, DNA and RNA (c) Mendel’s laws of inheritance. Reasons for the success of Mendel in his experiments, Absence of linkage in Mendel’s experiments. (d) Quantitative inheritance, continuous and discontinuous variation in plants. (e) Monogenic and polygenic inheritance. (f) Role of Genetics in Plant breeding, self and cross-pollinated crops, methods of breeding in field crops-introduction, selection, hybridization, mutation and polyploidy, tissue and cell culture. (g) Plant Biotechnology-definition and scope in crop production.
Biochemistry: pH and buffers,Classification and nomenclature of carbohydrates; proteins; lipids; vitamins and enzymes.
Microbiology: Microbial cell structure,Micro-organisms- Algae, Bacteria, Fungi, Actinomycetes, Protozoa and Viruses. Role of micro-organisms in respiration, fermentation and organic matter decomposition
Unit-2: Livestock Production
Scope and importance : (a) Importance of livestock in agriculture and industry, White revolution in India. (b) Important breeds Indian and exotic, distribution of cows, buffaloes and poultry in India.
Care and management : (a) Systems of cattle and poultry housing (b) Principles of feeding, feeding practices. (c) Balanced ration-definition and ingredients. (d) Management of calves, bullocks, pregnant and milch animals as well as chicks crockrels and layers, poultry. (e) Signs of sick animals, symptoms of common diseases in cattle and poultry, Rinderpest, black quarter, foot and mouth, mastitis and haemorrhagicsepticaemiacoccidiosis, Fowl pox and Ranikhet disease, their prevention and control.
Artificial Insemination : Reproductive organs, collection, dilution and preservation of semen and artificial insemination, role of artificial insemination in cattle improvement. Livestock Products: Processing and marketing of milk and Milk products.
Unit-3: Crop Production
Introduction : (a) Targets and achievements in foodgrain production in India since independence and its future projections, sustainable crop production, commercialization of agriculture and its scope in India. (b) Classification of field crops based on their utility-cereals, pulses, oils seeds, fibre, sugar and forage crops.
Soil, Soil fertility, Fertilizers and Manures: (a) Soil, soil pH, Soil texture, soil structure, soil organisms, soil tilth, soil fertility and soil health. (b) Essential plant nutrients, their functions and deficiency symptoms. (c) Soil types of India and their characteristics. (d) Organic manure, common fertilizers including straight, complex, fertilizer mixtures and biofertilizers; integrated nutrient management system.
Irrigation and Drainage: (a) Sources of irrigation (rain, canals, tanks, rivers, wells, tubewells). (b) Scheduling of irrigation based on critical stages of growth, time interval, soil moisture content and weather parameters. (c) Water requirement of crops. (d) Methods of irrigation and drainage. (e) Watershed management
Weed Control : Principles of weed control, methods of weed control (cultural, mechanical, chemical, biological and Integrated weed management).
Crops: Seed bed preparation, seed treatment, time and method of sowing/planting, seed rate; dose, method and time of fertilizer application, irrigation, interculture and weed control; common pests and diseases, caused by bacteria, fungi virus and nematode and their control, integrated pest management, harvesting, threshing, post harvest technology: storage, processing and marketing of major field crops-Rice, wheat, maize, sorghum, pearl millet, groundnut, mustard, pigeon-pea, gram, sugarcane, cotton and berseem.
(a) Importance of fruits and vegetables in human diet, Crop diversification & processing Industry. (b) Orchard-location and layout, ornamental gardening and kitchen garden. (c) Planting system, training, pruning, intercropping, protection from frost and sunburn. (d) Trees, shrubs, climbers, annuals, perennials-definition and examples. Propagation by seed, cutting, budding, layering and grafting. (e) Cultivation practices, processing and marketing of: (i) Fruits - mango, papaya, banana, guava, citrus, grapes. (ii) Vegetables - Radish, carrot, potato, onion, cauliflower, brinjal, tomato, spinach and cabbage. (iii) Flowers - Gladiolus, canna, chrysanthemums, roses and marigold. (f) Principles and methods of fruit and vegetable preservation. (g) Preparation of jellies, jams, ketchup, chips and their packing.
Note: Besides above syllabi, any other question of scientific and educational importance may be asked.
SYLLABI FOR ICAR’S ALL INDIA ENTRANCE EXAMINATION FOR ADMISSION TO MASTER DEGREE PROGRAMMES AND ICAR-PG SCHOLARSHIP/NTS (PGS)
Code 01: MAJOR SUBJECT GROUP - PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY
(Sub-Subjects: 1.1: Plant Biochemistry/ Bio. Chem. 1.2: Plant Biotechnology & Molecular Biology/Biotechnology, 1.3: Plant /Crop Physiology)
UNIT-I: Importance of agriculture in national economy; basic principles of crop production; cultivation of rice, wheat, chickpea, pigeon-pea, sugarcane, groundnut, tomato, and mango. Major soils of India; role of NPK and their deficiency symptoms. General structure and function of cell organelles; mitosis and meiosis; Mendelian genetics. Elementary knowledge of growth, development, photosynthesis, respiration and transpiration; Elements of economic botany. General structure and function of carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, enzymes and vitamins. Major pests and diseases of rice, wheat, cotton, chickpea, sugarcane and their management. Organic farming; bio-fertilizers; bio-pesticides. Recombinant DNA technology; transgenic crops. Important rural development programmes in India; organizational set up of agricultural research, education and extension in India. Elements of statistics.
UNIT-II: Importance of biochemistry in agriculture. Acid-base concept and buffers; pH.
Classification, structure and metabolic functions of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. Structure and function of nucleic acids. Enzymes: structure, nomenclature, mechanism of action; vitamins and minerals as coenzymes and cofactors. Metabolic pathways: glycolysis, TCA cycle, fatty acid oxidation, triglyceride biosynthesis. Electron transport chain; ATP formation. Photosynthesis: C-3, C-4 and CAM pathways. Nitrate assimilation; biological nitrogen fixation. Colorimetric and chromatographic techniques
UNIT-III: Characteristics of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms; differences between fungi, bacteria, mycoplasms and viruses. Physical and chemical basis of heredity; chromosome structure. DNA replication, transcription and translation; genetic code; operon concept. Genetic engineering; restriction enzymes; vectors; gene cloning; gene transfer. Plant cell and tissue culture; micro-propagation; somaclonal variation. Transformation; recombination; Heterosis. General application of biotechnology. Molecular and immunological techniques. Concept of bioinformatics, genomics and proteomics.
UNIT-IV: Plant Physiology/ Crop Physiology: Plant physiology– importance in agriculture. Seed germination, viability and vigour. Photosynthesis- significance of C-3, C-4 and CAM pathway; photorespiration and its implications. Translocation of assimilates; dry matter partitioning; Harvest index of crops. Growth and development; growth analysis; crop-water relationship. Plant nutrients and their functions. Phytohormones and their physiological role. Photo-periodism, vernalisation; pollination/ fertilization in flowering plants. Post-harvest physiology and its significance.
Code 02: MAJOR SUBJECT GROUP - PLANT SCIENCES
(Sub-Subjects: 2.1: Plant Breeding & Genetics, 2.2: Plant Pathology, 2.3: Agricultural Microbiology/Microbiology, 2.4: Seed Science & Technology, 2.5: Plant Genetic Resources)
UNIT-I: Importance of Agriculture in national economy; basic principles of crop production; cultivation of rice, wheat, chickpea, pigeon-pea, sugarcane, groundnut, tomato, potato and mango. Major soils of India, role of NPK and their deficiency symptoms.
UNIT-II: Structure and function of cell organelles; mitosis and meiosis; Mendelian genetics; elementary knowledge of photosynthesis; respiration, and transpiration; structure and functions of carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, enzymes and vitamins. Major pests and diseases of rice, wheat, cotton, chickpea, sugarcane and their management.
UNIT-III: Characteristics of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, differences between fungi, bacteria, mycoplasmas and viruses; physical and chemical basis of heredity; chromosome structure; genes/operon concept; protein biosynthesis; transformation, recombination, Heterosis; Elements of economic botany; integrated diseases management; sterilisation, disinfection and pasteurization; Koch’s postulates; etiological agents of rusts,
smuts, powdery/downy mildews, wilts, yellows, mosaic, necrosis, enations, blights and witches- broom; pH, buffer, vitamins, role of plant hormones in seed germination and dormancy; pollination/ fertilization in flowering plants; methods of seed testing; breeders, foundation and certified seeds; seed production in self and cross pollinated crops, nitrate assimilation; biological nitrogen fixation and other uses of microorganisms in agriculture.
UNIT-IV: Food and industry; composting and biogas production. Important rural development programmes in India;
organizational set up of agricultural research, education and extension in India.
Code 03: MAJOR SUBJECT GROUP - PHYSICAL SCIENCE
(Sub-Subjects: 3.1: Agricultural / Agro. Meteorology 3.2: Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry/ Soil Conservation and Water Management/ SWC/ Irrigation and Water Management, 3.3: Agricultural Physics, 3.4: Agricultural Chemicals, 3.5: Environmental Science.)
UNIT-I: Importance of Agriculture in national perspective; basic principles of crop production, diversification, diversification of Agriculture, principle of nutrient and water management, package of practices for rice, wheat sorghum, maize, chickpea, pigeon pea, potato, sugarcane, groundnut, major vegetable crops. Role of essential plant nutrients, their deficiency symptoms and management options. Structure and function of plant cells, cell division, Basic concept of plant physiology relating to crop production- Biochemical compounds viz, carbohydrates, proteins, enzymes, fats, liquid vitamins and their function, developmental programmes relating to rural upliftment and livelihood security; organisational set up of agricultural education research and extension and future strategies for up gradation.
UNIT-II: Volumetric and gravimetric analysis including complexmetric methods, periodic classification of element, Basic principle of instrumental analysis including spectro-photometry (Absorption and emission spectrography), Atomic structure –elementary concept of radioactivity, element and compound common ion effect, solubility product—hydrolysis of salts, buffer solution indicates equivalent weights and standard solution.
Elementary concepts of organic compounds- nomenclature and classifications including hydrocarbons, alcohol, aldehydes, acids and esters, carbohydrates, fats and liquids, amino acids, nucleic acids. Pesticides, their classification and uses; biopesticides and botanical pesticides.
UNIT-III: Soil as a medium for plant growth, composition of earth’s crust, weathering of rocks and minerals, components of soil- their importance, soil profile, soil partials- physical mineralogical and chemical nature. Mechanical analysis, Stokes law, assumptions, limitations and applications. Soil, physical properties- density, porosity, texture, soil structure and their brief descriptions. Rheological properties in soils, calculations of porosity and bulk density. Soil air-Aeration, causes of poor aeration, factors affecting aeration, importance for plant growth. Soil temperature - sources and losses of soil heat. Factors affecting soil temperature, its importance in plant growth. Soil water- structure of water, soil-water-energy relationship, classifications, surface tension and movement in soil. Soil colloids- properties, structure of silicate clay minerals, sources of negative charges, properties, kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite and vermiculite clay minerals, milli-equivalent concept , cation exchange capacity, anion exchange capacity, buffering of soils. Problem soils- acid, saline, sodic and acid sulphate soils – their characteristics, formation, problems and management. Irrigation, water quality and its evaluation. Waterlogged soils- basic features, distinction with upland soils.
UNIT-IV: Essential plant nutrients- criteria of essentiality, functions for plant growth, mechanisms for movement and uptake of ions in soils and plants, Forms of nutrients in soils, deficiency symptoms on plants, luxury consumption, nutrient interactions and chelated micronutrients. Soil fertility, evaluation and management for plant growth, soil testing and fertilizer recommendations. Soil classifications- diagnostic surface and sub- surface horizons, soil survey- types, objectives, uses, land capability classifications. Remote sensing and its application in agriculture, SIS, GIS and GPS- basic features and uses in agriculture, Elementary concepts of radio isotopes and uses in agriculture. Soil micro-organisms, Classifications and their roles. Organic matter- decomposition, C:N ratios, mineralization and immobilization processes, humus, role of organic matter in soil quality. Soil erosion, types and control measures. Fertilizers and manures- classifications, NPK fertilizers, their reactions in soils, green manuring, recycling of organic wastes, composting. Soil and water pollution- sources, brief idea about different pollutants in soils and their managements.
Code 04: MAJOR SUBJECT GROUP - ENTOMOLOGY AND NEMATOLOGY
(Sub-Subjects: 4.1: Agricultural/ Horticultural Entomology, 4.2: Nematology, 4.3: Apiculture, 4.4: Sericulture, 4.5: Plant Protection.)
UNIT-I: Importance of Agriculture in national economy; basic principles of crop production; cultivation of rice, wheat, chickpea, pigeon-pea, sugarcane, groundnut, tomato, cole crops, mango, grapes, banana, oilseeds other than groundnut, soybean and mustard. Major soils of India, role of NPK and their deficiency symptoms. Mendelian genetics; elementary knowledge of photosynthesis; respiration, and transpiration; Major cropping systems (rice-wheat cropping, crop rotations, mixed cropping); soil degradation-soil salinity and acidity and management; some aspects of post-harvest technology; varietal improvement; importance of Heterosis in crop production; crop protection principles in field and storage. Major insect pests and diseases of agricultural crops like rice, cotton, pulses, oilseed crops like groundnut, soybean and mustard, vegetables like tomato, cole crops; fruit crops like mango and banana and their management principles. Transgenic crops. Important rural development programmes in India; organizational set up of agricultural research, education and extension in India; Elements of statistics.
UNIT-II: Classification of animal kingdom up to class; distinguishing characters up to orders in class Insecta; general organization of an insect external morphology with special reference to lepidopteran larvae, coleopteran adults; and honeybee; metamorphosis and moulting; different physiological systems; insect- plant relationship; insect pests of agricultural and horticultural crops, and their stored/processed products, insect vectors of plant diseases- identification, biology, nature of damage, and their management tactics; and pests of household, medical and veterinary importance and their control; useful and beneficial insects like honeybee, lac insect, silkworm and pollinators; Nematode taxonomy, biology of important plant parasitic nematodes and their control; entomopathogenic nematodes, basic principles of insect and nematode pest management-cultural, biological, insecticidal, quarantine, and regulatory aspects; insecticide classification and insecticide resistance management; and insect protective transgenic crops.
Code 05: MAJOR SUBJECT GROUP - AGRONOMY
(Sub-Subjects: 5.1: Agronomy 5.2: Tea Husbandry & Technology)
UNIT-I: General: Importance of Agriculture in national economy; basic principles of crop production; cultivation of rice, wheat, chickpea, pigeon-pea, sugarcane, groundnut, rapeseed and mustard, potato. Major soils of India, role of NPK and their deficiency symptoms. Structure and function of cell organelles; mitosis and meiosis; Mendelian genetics: elementary knowledge of photosynthesis; respiration, photorespiration and transpiration; structure and functions of carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, enzymes and vitamins. Major pests and diseases of rice, wheat, cotton, chickpea, sugarcane and their management. Important rural development programmes in India; organisational set up of agricultural research, education and extension in India; Elements of statistics.
UNIT-II: Principles of Agronomy, Crop ecology and geography and Agricultural Meteorology: Agronomy –meaning and scope, National & International agricultural research institutes in India, Agro climatic zones of India, Tillage, crop stand establishment and planting geometry and their effect on crop, Physiological limits of crop yield and variability in relation to ecological optima, organic farming, Precision farming, Integrated farming systems, Principles of field experimentation. Principles of crop ecology and crop adaptation, climate shift and its ecological implications, Agro-ecological regions in India, Geographical distribution of crop plants, Greenhouse effect, Climatic factors and their effect on plant processes and crop productivity, Role of GIS and GPS in agriculture. Weather & climate, Earth’s atmosphere, Solar radiation, Atmospheric temperature and global warming. Crops and atmospheric humidity, Weather forecasting.
UNIT-III: Field crops: Origin, distribution, economic importance, soil and climatic requirement, varieties, cultural practices and yield of cereals ( rice, wheat, maize, sorghum, pearl millet, minor millets, barley), pulses (chickpea, lentil, peas, Pigeon pea, mungbean, urdbean), oilseeds (groundnut, sesame, soybean, rapeseed & mustard, sunflower, safflower, linseed), fiber crops (cotton, jute, sun hemp), sugar crops(sugarcane), fodder & forage crops (sorghum, maize, napier, berseem, Lucerne, oats), medicinal & aromatic plants (menthe, lemon grass and isabgol) and commercial crops(potato, tobacco).
UNIT-IV: Weed management: Principles of weed management, Classification, biology and ecology of weeds, crop weed competition and allelopathy, concepts and methods of weed control, Integrated weed management,
Classification, formulations, selectivity and resistance of herbicides, Herbicide persistence in soil and plants, Application methods and equipments, Weed flora shifts in cropping systems, Special and problematic weeds and their management in cropped and non-cropped situations, Weed management in field crops.
UNIT-V: Water management: Principles of irrigation, Water resources and irrigation development in India, Water and irrigation requirements, Concepts and approaches of irrigation scheduling, Methods of irrigation, Measurement of irrigation water, application, distribution and use efficiencies, Conjunctive use of water, Irrigation water quality and its management, water management in major field, crops (rice, wheat, maize, groundnut, sugarcane) Agricultural drainage.
UNIT-VI: Soil fertility and fertilizer use: Essential plant nutrients and their deficiency symptoms, concept of essentiality of plant nutrients, Indicators of soil fertility and productivity, Fertilizer materials and their availability to plants, slow release fertilizers, Nitrification inhibitors, Principles and methods of fertilizer application, Integrated nutrient management, site specific nutrient management.
UNIT-VII: Dryland Agronomy: Characteristics of Dryland farming and delineation of Dryland tracts, constraints of Dryland farming in India, Types of drought and their management, contingency crop planning and mid- season corrections for aberrant weather and its recycling. Watershed management.
UNIT-VIII: Problem soils : Problem soils and their distribution in India, Characteristics and reclamation of these soils, Crop production techniques in problem soils.
UNIT-IX: Sustainable land use systems: Sustainable agriculture: parameters and indicators, Conservation agriculture, safe disposal of agri-industrial waste for crop production, Agro-forestry systems, shifting cultivation, Alternate land use systems, Wastelands and their remediation for crop production.
Code 06: MAJOR SUBJECT GROUP - SOCIAL SCIENCES
(Sub-Subjects: 6.1: Agricultural Economics, 6.2: Dairy Economics 6.3: Agriculture Extension/Extension Education/ Communication 6.4: Dairy Extension Education)
UNIT-I: Importance of Agriculture in national economy; basic principles of crop production; cultivation of rice, wheat, chickpea, pigeon-pea, sugarcane, groundnut, tomato and mango. Major soils of India, role of NPK and their deficiency symptoms. Structure and function of cell organelles, mitosis and meiosis; Mendelian genetics; elementary knowledge of photosynthesis; respiration, and transpiration; structure and functions of carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, enzymes and vitamins. Major pests and diseases of rice, wheat, cotton, chickpea, sugarcane and their management. Important rural development programmes in India; organisational set up of agricultural research, education and extension in India; Elements of statistics. Measures of central tendency and dispersion, regression and correlation; concept of probability, sampling techniques and tests of significance.
UNIT-II: Theory of consumer behaviour, theory of demand, elasticity of demand, indifference curve analysis, theory of firm, cost curves, theory of supply, price determination, market classification, concept of macroeconomics, money and banking, national income. Agricultural marketing—role, practice, institutions, problems and reforms, role of capital and credit in agriculture, crop insurance, credit institutions, cooperatives, capital formation in agriculture, agrarian reforms, globalization, WTO & its impact on Indian agriculture.
UNIT-III: Basic principles of farm management, concept of farming system and economics of farming systems, agricultural production economics-scope and analysis, factor-product relationship, marginal cost and marginal revenue, farm planning and budgeting, Agricultural finance: nature and scope. Time value of money, Compounding and discounting. Agricultural credit: meaning, definition, need, classification. Credit analysis: 4R’s, 5C’s and 7 P’s of credit, repayment plans. History of financing agriculture in India. Commercial banks, nationalization of commercial banks. Lead bank scheme, regional rural banks, scale of finance. Higher financing agencies, RBI, NABARD, AFC, Asian Development Bank, World Bank, role of capital and credit in agriculture; credit institutions, co-operatives and agrarian reforms in India.
UNIT-IV: Extension Education- concept, meaning, principles, philosophy, scope and importance; Extension programme planning and evaluation- steps and principles, models of organizing agricultural extension; historical development of extension in USA, Japan and India. Rural development, meaning, importance and problems; Rural development
programmes in India- Pre-independence era to recent ones; Extension teaching methods, definition and concept of sociology, differences between rural & urban communities, social stratification., social groups, social organization and social change. Rural leadership, educational psychology- learning and teaching, role of personality in agricultural extension Indian rural system- its characteristics; value system, cost and class; structure and customs; rural group organization and adult education.
UNIT-V: Communication, principles, concepts, process, elements and barriers in teaching methods. Different kinds of communication methods and media and AV aids/materials. Media mix, Campaign, Cyber extension- internet, cybercafé, Kisan Call Centers, teleconferencing, agriculture journalism, diffusion and adoption of innovations- adopter categories, capacity building of extension personnel and farmers- training to farmers, women and rural youth.
Code 07: MAJOR SUBJECT GROUP - STATISTICAL SCIENCES
(Sub-Subjects: 7.1: Agricultural Statistics, 7.2: Computer Application, 7.3: Bioinformatics)
UNIT-I: Agriculture: Importance of Agriculture/Forestry/Livestock in national economy. Basic principles of crop production.
Major diseases and pests of crops. Elementary principles of economics and agri-extension. Important rural development programmes in India. Organizational set up of Agricultural research, education and extension in India.
UNIT-II: Mathematics: Real and complex numbers; polynomial and roots; de Moivre’s theorem and its applications.
Elements of set theory- De Morgan’s laws; vector space, linear independence, orthogonality; matrices- addition and multiplication, rank of a matrix, determinants, inverse of a matrix, solution of a system of linear equations, characteristic roots and vectors; convergence of infinite sequences and infinite series- tests for convergence, absolute convergence; co-ordinate geometry in two dimensions - line, circle, parabola, ellipse and hyperbola.
Differential calculus: limits, differentiation of function of a single variable; Taylor’s and Maclaurin’s theorems, mean-value theorem; maxima and minima; indeterminate form; curvature, asymptotes, tracing of curves, function of two or more independent variables, partial differentiation, homogeneous functions and Euler’s theorem, composite functions, total derivatives, derivative of an implicit function, change of variables, Jacobians. Integral calculus: integration by simple methods, standard forms, simple definite integrals, double integrals, change of order of integration, Gamma and Beta functions, application of double integrals to find area. Ordinary differential equations: differential equations of first order, Exact and Bernoulli’s differential equations, equations reducible to exact form by integrating factors, equations of first order and higher degree, Clairaut’s equation, methods of finding complementary functions and particular integrals.
Calculus of finite differences, interpolation; numerical differentiation and integration, difference equations;
solution of simple non-linear equations by numerical methods like Newton- Raphson method.
UNIT-III: Introduction: Statistics – definition, use and limitations; Frequency Distribution and Curves; Measures of Central Tendency: Arithmetic mean; Geometric mean, Harmonic mean, Median, Mode; Measures of Dispersion: Range, Mean deviation, Quartile deviation, Variance and Coefficient of Variation; Probability: Definition and concepts, law of addition and multiplication, conditional probability, Bayes’ theorem; Binomial, multinomial, Poisson and normal distribution; Introduction to Sampling: Random Sampling; Standard Error; Tests of Significance - Types of Errors, Null Hypothesis, Level of Significance, Testing of hypothesis; Large Sample Test- SND test for Means, Single Sample and Two Samples; Student’s t-test for Single Sample, Two Samples and Paired t test. F test; Chi-Square Test for goodness of fit and independence of attributes; Correlation and Regression and associated tests of significance. Experimental Designs: basic principles, Analysis of variance, Completely Randomized Design (CRD), Randomized Block Design (RBD).
UNIT-IV: Computers: input, output devices, memory, hardware, software; Classification, booting computer. Viruses, worms and antivirus. Operating System- some DOS commands, FORMAT, DIR, COPY, PATH, MD, CD and DELTREE. Types of files. WINDOWS: Desktop and its elements, WINDOWS Explorer, working with files and folders; setting time and date. Anatomy of WINDOWS. Applications – MSWORD: Word processing features- Creating, Editing, Formatting and Saving; MSEXCEL: Electronic spreadsheets, concept, packages. Creating, editing and saving a spreadsheet. In-built statistical and other functions. Excel data analysis tools, Correlation and regression, t-test for two-samples and ANOVA with one-way classification. Creating graphs. MS Power
Point and its features. MSACCESS: Concept of Database, creating database; Computer programming: Flow charts and Algorithms, Programming languages- BASIC, FORTRAN and C. Internet: World Wide Web (WWW), Concepts, web browsing and electronic mail. Bioinformatics - NCBI Genebank sequence database- primary and secondary database.
Code 08: MAJOR SUBJECT GROUP - HORTICULTURE
(Sub-Subjects: 8.1: Horticulture, 8.2: Vegetable Crops or Sci. / Olericulture, 8.3: Pomology/ Fruit Sci., Fruit Sci. and Horticulture Technology 8.4: Post-Harvest Technology of Horticultural Crops 8.5: Floriculture & Landscaping Architecture 8.6: Plantation Spices, Medicinal and Aromatic Crops)
UNIT-I: Importance of Agriculture in national economy; basic principles of crop production; cultivation of rice, wheat, chickpea, pigeon-pea, sugarcane, groundnut, tomato and mango. Major soils of India, role of NPK and their deficiency symptoms. Structure and function of cell organelles; mitosis and meiosis; Mendelian genetics; elementary knowledge of photosynthesis; respiration, and transpiration; structure and functions of carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, enzymes and vitamins. Major pests and diseases of rice, wheat, cotton, chickpea, sugarcane and their management. Important rural development programmes in India; organizational set up of agricultural research, education and extension in India; Elements of statistics.
UNIT-II: Layout and establishment of orchards; pruning and training; propagation, climatic requirement and cultivation of fruits like mango, banana, citrus, guava, grape, pineapple, papaya, apple, pear, peach and plum; cultivation of plantation crops like coconut and cashew nut and spices like black pepper, coriander, turmeric, important physiological disorders; major vegetable crops of tropical, subtropical and temperate regions ‘like cole crops (cauliflower, cabbage and knol khol), cucurbits (pumpkin, bottlegourd, bittergourd, luffa, muskmelon and watermelon, cucumber), root crops (radish, tapioca sweet potato and potato), leafy vegetables (fenugreek and spinach); solanaceous crops (tomato, chillies and brinjal); techniques for raising the nursery; nutritive value of fruits and vegetables and their role in human nutrition; basic physiology of ripening in fruits and vegetables and their products; type of fruits and vegetable products and control of fungal and bacterial diseases; major floricultural crops grown in India for commercial purposes like rose, carnation, chrysanthemum, marigold, tuberose, gladiolus, orchids; establishment and maintenance of lawns, trees, shrubs, creepers, hedges and annuals; type of gardens, methods of crop improvement; male sterility and incompatibility; pure line and pedigree selection; backcross, mass selection; heterosis; plant nutrients, deficiency symptoms of nutrients, manures and fertilisers, systems of irrigation, management of important pests and diseases of fruits and vegetables.
Code 09: MAJOR SUBJECT GROUP - FORESTRY/AGROFORESTRY & SILVICULTURE
(Sub-Subjects: 9.1: Forest Production & Utilization 9.2: Silviculture & Agroforestry 9.3: Tree Physiology and Breeding 9.4: Agroforestry, 9.5: Forest NRM/Forest Mgmt. & Utilization 9.6: Plantation Technology 9.7 Wild Life Sc. (Forestry) 9.8 Wood Science)
UNIT-I: Importance of Agriculture/Forestry/Livestock in national economy. Basic principles of crop production. Important rural development programmes in India Elementary principles of economics and agri-extension. Organizational set up of Agricultural Research, education and extension in India. Major diseases and pests of crops. Elements of statistics.
UNIT-II: Forest- importance, types, classification, ecosystem, biotic and abiotic components, ecological succession and climax, nursery and planting technique, social forestry, farm forestry, urban forestry, community forestry, forest management, silvicultural practices, forest mensuration, natural regeneration, man-made plantations, shifting cultivation, taungya, dendrology, hardwoods, softwoods, pulp woods, fuel woods, multipurpose tree species, wasteland management. Agroforestry – importance and land use systems, forest soils, classification and conservation, watershed management, forest genetics and biotechnology and tree improvement, tree seed technology, rangelands, wildlife – importance, abuse, depletion, management, major and minor forest products including medicinal and aromatic plants, forest inventory, aerial photo interpretation and remote sensing, forest depletion and degradation – importance and impact on environment, global warming, role of forests and trees in climate mitigation, tree diseases, wood decay and discolouration, tree pests, integrated pest and disease management, biological and chemical wood preservation, forest conservation, Indian forest policies, Indian forest act, forest engineering, forest economics, joint forest management and tribology.
Code 10: MAJOR SUBJECT GROUP - AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY
(Sub-Subjects: 10.1: Soil & Water Conservation Engg./Soil & Water Engg., 10.2: Irrigation Drainage Engg,/Irrigation Water Mgmt.Engg.10.3:Post Harvest Technology/ Processing and Food Engg. 10.4: Farm Machinery and Power Engg.10.5: Renewable Energy Engg.)
UNIT-I : Elementary Statistics and theory of probability, differential and integral calculus, linear algebra and Fourier series, differential equations, vector algebra & vector calculus, elementary numerical analysis.
UNIT-II: Electric motors: Types, performance, selection, installation and maintenance, measuring instruments, fundamentals of computers, power distribution.
UNIT-III: Thermodynamic principles; fluid mechanics, theory of machines.
UNIT-IV: Soil mechanics, soil classification, compaction & shear strength of soils, engineering mechanics, strength of materials.
UNIT-V: Importance of farm equipment and role of mechanization in enhancing productivity & profitability of Indian agriculture; analysis of forces, design and production of farm machinery and power units; mechanics of tillage
& traction operation, repair and maintenance of farm machines and equipment, farm engines; tractors and power tillers; tractor stability and operators comfort; field capacity and cost analysis; test codes and procedure; safety and ergonomic principles. Role of energy in economic development; solar, wind and bio-energy; biogas plants & gasifiers; biofuels from biomass; collection, characterization and storage of biomass, solar cookers
& solar refrigerators.
UNIT-VI: Biochemical and engineering properties of biological materials; quality control & safety of raw and finished products. Principles, practices and equipments for drying, milling, separation and storage of agricultural produce and by-products; material handling equipment and operations; farmstead planning; heating & cooling load calculation; seed processing practices and equipments; food preservation methods and products development; refrigeration and air conditioning; cold stores; waste management, cost analysis & food processing plants layout, feasibility reports.
UNIT-VII: Surveying and leveling; hydrology, water resources in India; efficiency in water use; irrigation system and equipment; water conveyances and associated efficiency; soil-plant-water relationship; estimation of evaporation and water requirements of crop; water harvesting and use, farm ponds and reservoirs, command area development, land use capability classification, ground water development, wells and pumping equipment, soil erosion and its control, land shaping and grading equipment and practices, hydraulic structures, drainage of irrigated and humid areas; salt balance and reclamation of saline and alkaline soils.
Code 11: MAJOR SUBJECT GROUP - WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
(Sub-Subject: 11.1: Water Science and Technology)
Unit-I: Importance of Agriculture in national economy; basic principles of crop production; cultivation of rice, wheat, chickpea, pigeon-pea, sugarcane, groundnut, tomato and mango. Major soils of India, role of NPK and their deficiency symptoms. Structure and function of cell organelles; mitosis and meiosis; Mendelian genetics; elementary knowledge of photosynthesis; respiration, and transpiration; structure and functions of carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, enzymes and vitamins. Pests and diseases of major crops and their management, important rural development programmes in India; organizational set up of agricultural research, education and extension in India.
Unit-II: Water resources of India, surface and groundnut resources, rainfall, rainfall-runoff relations, measurement and estimation of runoff, irrigation development in India, command area development, watershed management principles, government schemes in watershed management program, water harvesting structures including farm ponds, water quality including physical, chemical and biological properties.
Unit-III: Physical properties of soils—texture, structure, density and consistency, infiltration, field capacity, permanent wilting point, available water hydraulic conductivity, soil water flow including Darcy’s law, mechanical analysis,
chemical properties of pH, EC, atoms, molecules, colloids, clay mineral, major and trace elements, salinity and sodicity, cation exchange capacity, evaporation, evapotranspiration, water requirements of crop, plant growth process, soil and water conservation practices and tillage.
Unit-IV: Simultaneous and quadratic equations, differentiation and integration, differential equations, elements of statistics, frequency distribution, probability concepts, basic concepts of economics, energy, horse power, efficiency of machines, concepts of fluid flow, hydrostatic pressure, surface tension, irrigation water distribution and control, irrigation methods, irrigation efficiencies, irrigation scheduling, water lifting devices and pumps, construction of wells, drainage principles and applications, surface drainage, subsurface drainage, water pricing, water laws and irrigation acts.
Code 12: MAJOR SUBJECT GROUP – HOME SCIENCE (CURRENTLY RENAMED AS COMMUNITY SCIENCE)
(Sub-Subjects: 12.1: Food & Nutrition, 12.2: Human Development & Family Studies,
12.3: Home Management/Family Resource Management, 12.4: Clothing & Textile/ Textile & Apparel Designing,12.5: Home Science Extension/ Education,/Extn. & Comm. Mgmt.)
UNIT-I: Importance of agriculture in national economy; basic principles of crop production; cultivation of rice, wheat, chickpea, pigeon-pea, sugarcane, groundnut, tomato, and mango. Major soils of India; role of NPK and their deficiency symptoms. General structure and function of cell organelles; mitosis and meiosis; Mendelian genetics. Elementary knowledge of growth, development, photosynthesis, respiration and transpiration; Elements of economic botany. General structure and function of carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, enzymes and vitamins. Major pests and diseases of rice, wheat, cotton, chickpea, sugarcane and their management. Organic farming; biofertilizers; biopesticides. Recombinant DNA technology; transgenic crops. Natural Resources: forest, water, mineral, food, energy and land resources. Ecosystems. Biodiversity & its conservation. Environmental pollution. Environmental ethics. Important rural development programmes in India; organizational set up of agricultural research, education and extension in India. Elements of Statistics.
UNIT-II: Elements of Human Nutrition i.e. Food groups and the nutrients contributed by each group to the diet, composition and nutritive value of foods; food processing and preservation, meal planning i.e. principles menu planning for normal individuals for different age groups and at different stages of life, diet therapy, institutional food management, community nutrition and health, food related laws, policy and programmes in India. Organic and genetically modified foods.
UNIT-III: Introduction to child/human development-meaning, concept, principles, prenatal development (conception to child birth), care of new born, pre- natal and post natal care of mother, development of child in early and late childhood, early childhood education, adolescence, development and relationship with peers & family, marriage and family dynamics, meaning, definition of family life cycle, family welfare programmes in India, community education, child studies methods, participation in pre-school/crèche.
UNIT-IV: Concept and principles of management, management process, work, work environment, work simplification, fundamentals of housing, principles of design & home furnishing-selection, care and maintenance of accessories, equipments, furniture, paintings, family finance/ economics and consumer education. Functional interiors for special needs.
UNIT-V: Introduction to clothing construction- sewing machine its parts and use, preparation of fabric for lay out textile fiber-classification, processing/manufacturing method, clothing need of family members, household textile and consumers, weaving and hosiery, traditional textiles and embroideries of India, care of clothing and textile finishes, dying & printing. Organic dyes.
UNIT-VI: Introduction to Home Science Education communication and extension methods, programme planning & evaluation, entrepreneurial education, projected and non- projected aids (audio-visual aids) rural development programmes in India. Empowerment of women.
Code 13: MAJOR SUBJECT GROUP - ANIMAL BIOTECHNOLOGY
(Sub-Subjects: 13.1: Animal Biotechnology, 13.2: Vety./Animal Biochemistry)
UNIT-I: Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, cell wall, membranes, cell organelles, organization and functions, chromosome structure and functions, cell growth division and differentiation. Sub unit structure of macromolecules and supermolecular systems. Self assembly of sub units, viruses, bacteriophage, ribosomes and membrane systems.
UNIT-II: Scope and importance of biochemistry in animal sciences, cell structure and functions. Chemistry and biological significance of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, vitamins and hormones. Enzymes— chemistry, kinetics and mechanism of action and regulation. Metabolic inhibitors with special reference to antibiotics and insecticides. Biological oxidation, energy metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids and nucleic acids. Colorimetry, spectrophotometry, chromatography and electrophoresis methods.
UNIT-III: Chemistry of antigens and antibodies and molecular basis of immune reaction, radio-immune assay and other assays. Chemistry of respiration and gas transport, water and electrolyte metabolism. Deficiency diseases, metabolic disorders and clinical biochemistry. Endocrine glands, biosynthesis of hormones and their mechanism of action.
UNIT-IV: History of molecular biology, biosynthesis of proteins and nucleic acids, genome organization, regulation of gene expression, polymerase chain reaction, basic principles of biotechnology applicable to veterinary science gene sequence, immunodiagnostics, animal cell culture, in vitro fertilization. Sub-unit vaccines: Principles of fermentation technology. Basic principles of stem cell and animal cloning.
Code 14: MAJOR SUBJECT GROUP - VETERINARY SCIENCE
(Sub-Subjects: 14.1: Veterinary Anatomy/ Veterinary Anatomy & Histology, 14.2: Veterinary Gynaecology and Obstetrics/Ani. Reproduction, 14.3:Vety. Medicine (Clinical/Preventive), 14.4: Veterinary Parasitology, 14.5: Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, 14.6: Veterinary Pathology 14.7: Wildlife Science/ Wildlife Health Mgt. 14.8: Vety.Virology, 14.9: Vety. Immunology, 14.10: Veterinary Microbiology & Immunology/Bacteriology, 14.11: Veterinary Surgery & Radiology 14.12: Veterinary Public Health & Epidemiology/Vety. Public Health/Vety.Epidemiology/ Vety. Epidemiology & Preventive Medicine)
UNIT I:Structure of cells, cell organelles, chromosome structure and functions, cell growth, division and differentiation and functions. Structure and function of basic tissues-epithelium, connective tissue, muscle and nervous tissue. Gross Morphology, Histology and physiology of mammalian organs and systems, major sense organs and receptors, circulatory system. Digestion in simple stomached animals, birds and fermentative digestion in ruminants, Kidney and its functions-respiratory system-animal behaviour- growth-influence of environment on animal production-biotechnology in animal production and reproduction- electrophysiology of different types of muscle fibres. Exocrine and endocrine glands, hormones and their functions, blood composition and function. Homeostasis, osmoregulation and blood clotting. Gametogenesis and development of urogenital organs. Boundaries of body cavities. Pleural and peritoneal reflections.
UNIT-II: Classification and growth characteristics of bacteria, important bacterial diseases of livestock and poultry, general characters, classification of important fungi. Nature of viruses, morphology and characteristics, viral immunity, important viral diseases of livestock and poultry. Viral vaccines. Antigen and antibody, antibody formation, immunity, allergy, anaphylaxis, hypersensitivity, immunoglobulins, complement system. Etiology of diseases and concept, extrinsic and intrinsic factors, inflammation, degeneration, necrosis, calcification, gangrene, death, atrophy, hypertrophy, benign and malignant tumours in domestic animals. General classification, morphology, life cycle of important parasites, important parasitic diseases (Helminths, Protozoa and Arthropods) of veterinary importance with respect to epidemiology, symptoms, pathogeneses, diagnosis, immunity and control.
UNIT-III: Clinical examination and diagnosis, Etiology, epidemiology, symptoms, diagnosis, prognosis, treatment and control of diseases affecting different body systems of various species of domestic animals, epidemiology— aims, objectives, ecological concepts and applications. General surgical principles and management of surgical cases. Types, administration and effects of anaesthesia. Principles and use of radiological techniques in the diagnosis of animal diseases.
Estrus and estrus cycle in domestic animals, Synchronization of estrus, fertilization, pregnancy diagnosis, parturition, management of postpartum complications dystokias and its management, fertility, infertility and its management, artificial insemination.
UNIT-IV:Zoonotic diseases through milk and meat, Zoo animal health. Source and nature of drugs, pharmacokinetics, Chemotherapy-sulpha drugs, antibiotics, mechanism and problem of drug resistance. Drug allergy, important poisonous plants, toxicity of important agro-chemicals and their detoxification, drugs action on different body systems.
Code 15: MAJOR SUBJECT GROUP - ANIMAL SCIENCES
(Sub-Subjects: 15.1: Animal Husbandry/Dairy Sci, 15.2: Animal Genetics & Breeding,
15.3: Animal Nutrition, 15.4: Vety./Animal Physiology, 15.5: Livestock Production Management, 15.6: Livestock Products Technology, 15.7: Poultry Science,15.8: Vety. & Animal Husbandry Extension 15.9: Livestock/ Veterinary/ Animal Husbandry Economics 15.10: Bio-Statistics)
UNIT-I: Principles of animal genetics, cell structure and multiplication. Mendel’s laws, principles of population genetics, concept of heredity, heterosis and mutation, principles of evolution, principles of molecular genetics, genetic code, quantitative and qualitative traits. Selection of breeding methods in livestock and poultry. Population statistics of livestock.
UNIT-II: General nutrition, proximate principles, carbohydrates, proteins and fats their digestion and metabolism in ruminants and non-ruminants. Energy partition- measures of protein quality. Water, minerals, vitamins and additives, feeds and fodders and their classification. Common anti-nutritional factors and unconventional feeds. Hay and silage making. Grinding, chaffing, pelleting, roasting, feed block. Feed formulation principles. Digestion- control motility and secretion of alimentary tract. Mechanism, natural and chemical control of respiration, gaseous exchange and transport, high altitude living, physiology of work and exercise. Cardiac cycle, natural control of cardiovascular system. Smooth and skeletal muscle contraction. Blood coagulation. Physiology of immune system. Male and female reproduction including artificial insemination, in-vitro fertilization, cryo-preservation. Excretory system.
UNIT III: General concepts of livestock production and management, status of dairy and poultry industry, impact of livestock farming in Indian agriculture. Livestock housing, production and reproduction management, lactation management, breeding programmes for livestock and poultry. Composition, quality control and preservation of livestock products, methods of processing and storage livestock products. International Trade/WTO/IPR issues related to livestock products.
UNIT IV: Concept of sociology, differences between rural, tribal and urban communities, social change, factors of change. Principles and steps of extension education, community development– aims, objectives, organizational set up and concept evolution of extension in India, extension teaching methods. Role of livestock in economy. Identifying social taboos, social differences, obstacles in the way of organizing developmental programmes. Concept of marketing, principles of co-operative societies, animal husbandry development planning and programme, key village scheme, ICDD, Gosadan, Goshala, Role of Gram Panchayat in livestock development. Basics of statistics, data analysis and computational techniques.
Code 16: MAJOR SUBJECT GROUP - FISHERIES SCIENCE
(Sub-Subjects: 16.1: Fisheries Sciences/Fish Environment Mgmt., 16.2: Fisheries Resource
Management, 16.3: Aquaculture, 16.4: Fish Processing Technology/Fish PHT, 16.5:Fish Physiology & & Biochemestry 16.6: Aquatic Animal Health Mgmt., 16.7: Fisheries Extension, 16.8: Aquatic Env. Management,16.9: Fish Genetics/ Breeding / Biotechnology,16.10: Fish Nutrition & Feed Tech. 16.11: Fish Economics, 16.12:Fish Engg.& Technology)
UNIT-I: Classification and taxonomical characteristics of cultivable fisheries, crustaceans and molluscs. Fresh water, brackish water and marine fishery resources of India, marine fisheries of the world. Estuarine, lacustrine, brackish water and pond ecosystem. Population dynamics, fish stock, abundance methods and analysis. Conservation and management of fishery resources. Fisheries legislations and law of the Seas. Impact of over exploitation and climate change on fisheries resources.
UNIT-II: Reproduction and breeding behaviour in fishes and shellfishes, brood stock improvement, maturity and fecundity studies. Induced spawning methods and seed production, natural fish seed collection and rearing methods. Types of eggs and development of larval stages of fin fishes and shellfishes. Preparation and management of fresh water and brackish water fishponds. Cultivable species identification, introduction of exotic fishes in India. Culture methods: Pen and cage culture practices, crap and shrimp hatchery management, basic aspects of biotechnology in relation to fisheries.
UNIT-III: Important limnological, oceanographical and biological parameters in relation to fisheries of lotic and lentic waters, biological productivity and its impact on fisheries. Environmental impact assessment on fisheries in lentic and lotic waters. Biological parameters including energy flow, community ecology and aquatic association, biodiversity and its conservation, aquatic pollution and its management.
UNIT-IV: Common crafts and gears used for fish capture. Boat building material and demerits of wood, steel, aluminum, Ferro cement and FRP. Different types of fibres and netting materials and their characteristics, preservation of netting, parts of a trammel net, purse-scene, gill net and tuna long line. Food chemistry, fundamentals of microbiology. General methods of fish preservation and fishery by products. Canning and packaging techniques, processing and product development techniques.
UNIT-V: Introduction to fishery economics and concepts of cooperative, marketing and banking management. Supply v/s demand economics of hatchery management and fish culture operations. Profit maximization. Problems in estimating costs and returns in fisheries. WTO agreements in Fisheries sector, intellectual property rights (IPR) and international fish trade; Fisheries extension methods. Training and education needs in fisheries. Communication concepts, Modern tools of fishery extension education, participatory rural appraisal (PRA), Rapid rural appraisal (RRA), role of women in fisheries; Basics of statistics in fisheries and computer science.
Code 17: MAJOR SUBJECT GROUP - DAIRY SCIENCE
(Sub-Subjects: 17.1: Dairy Microbiology, 17.2: Dairy Chemistry)
Unit-I: Chemical composition of various food of plant and animal origin, structure and functions of food constituents, additives, preservatives, flavours and antioxidants, composition and physico-chemical and nutritional properties of milk and colostrum, chemistry of milk, constituents, nutrients and milk products. Test for the quality of milk, butter, ghee, milk powder etc., adulterants, neutralizers and preservatives, their detection, heat stability of milk.
Unit II: Introduction to dairy microbiology – Milk production hygiene and critical risk factors affecting microbiological quality on-farm; Microorganisms associated with milk and their classification based on growth temperature– psychrotrophs, mesophiles, thermodurics and thermophiles; Microbial metabolites and their role in spoilages
- souring, curdling, gassiness, ropiness, proteolysis, lipolysis, abnormal flavour and colour; Antimicrobial systems in raw milk; Microbiological grading of raw milk; Microflora of mastitic milk and its importance in dairy industry; Food poisoning, food infections, toxi-infections and other milk borne diseases and their control.
Unit-III: Composition and chemistry of cream, butter, ghee, ice-cream, cheese, condensed and dried milks, infant food, spoilage of ghee and use of antioxidants, chemistry of milk fermentation, chemistry of rennin coagulation of milk and changes occurring during ripening of cheese, physico-chemical changes in the manufacture and storage of milk powder, lactose, crystallization and its significance, physicochemical changes during the manufacture of indigenous milk products, quality standards of dairy products.
Unit IV: Bacteriological aspects of milk processing - Thermization, pasteurization, boiling, sterilization, UHT, bactofugation, and membrane filtration; Microbiological quality of cream, butter, ice-cream, concentrated dairy products, dried milks, infants milk foods, indigenous dairy products; Factors affecting the microbiological quality of these products during production, processing, handling, storage and distribution; Enumeration, isolation and identification of conventional and emerging dairy pathogens, detection of microbial toxins, drug residues in milk and their public health importance; Microbial defects associated with dairy products and their control; Microbiology of dairy starters; Classification, genetic aspects and carbohydrate metabolism of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB); Preservation, propagation and quality control of dairy starters and their inhibition by antibiotic residues, detergents, sanitizers, bacteriophages etc.; Microbiology of fermented milks, cheeses and application of probiotic concept in dahi, yoghurt, Kefir, Kumiss, Bulgarian milk, cultured buttermilk, leben, yakult, cheddar and processed cheese; Dairy plant hygiene and sanitation - Microbiology of air, water, equipments, packaging materials, personnel, disposal of dairy waste; Microbiological standards for milk and milk products - PFA, BIS, Codex/ ISO standards (ISO 9001: 2001/ISO 22000:2005).
Code 18: MAJOR SUBJECT GROUP - DAIRY TECHNOLOGY
(Sub-Subjects: 18.1: Dairy Technology, 18.2: Dairy Engineering)
UNIT-I: Principles and processes of food preservation, non-conventional sources, processing of fluid milk, Computerization and Automatic Process Controls in Milk Processing. HACCP Concepts in Fluid Milk Processing. Advances in Centrifugal Separation and Bactofugation. Manufacture of various types of dairy products and changes occurring during manufacture and storage and their defects. Sensory evaluation and judging of milk and milk products, types of packaging materials and their properties, packing forms and operations, problems in food packaging, recent advances in packaging dairy and food products. Intelligent Food Packaging. Nutritional Labeling of Food Products. Application of Membrane Processing in Milk Processing.
UNIT-II: Materials and sanitary features of the dairy equipments. Homogenizer- Theory of Homogenization. Triplex pump, Lubrication of the Homogenizer, care and Management of homogenizer, Homogenizer Accessories and Standards for Homogenizer. Pasteurizer- Pasteurizer construction & Principle Materials used in Construction of Pasteurizers. High temperature short time Pasteurizer, care of Pasteurizer, Reaction Kinetics, Sterilizer, Mixing & agitation equipments, principles of evaporation, drying. Atmosphere concentration, Vacuum Pan, Fluidization. Care of Vacuum Pan, Atmospheric Drum Dryer. Spray Dryer principles of dairy plant layout and design, Functional Design, space requirement of Milk Plant, problem through computers, centralized dispersal of data processing, d-BASE-III, Lotus 1-2-3 to graphics, Fortran.
UNIT-III: Fluid mechanics- properties of fluids, Bernoulli’s equation and its applications, hydraulic systems Types of Pumps, Sanitary pumps, Standards for Centrifugal and Positive Rotatory Type of pumps, Selection of Pumps. Care and Upkeep of Pumps dimensional analysis, refrigeration and air-conditioning. Artificial Refrigeration, Compression Refrigeration System, Refrigeration Accessories. Calculation of size of Refrigeration Machine Requirements. Heat-transfer and thermodynamics; mechanical separations, Rittinger’s and Kick’s laws, Engineering of mechanics, theory of machine, strength of materials, Hook’s law, materials of fabrications, machine tools, Electrical Engg., Electromagnetic induction, Magnetic- Hysteresis loop (BH Curve), AC fundamentals.
Code 19: GROUP - FOOD SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY
(Sub-Subject: 19.1: Food Technology/Food Science & Technology, 19.2: Food Safety & Quality Assurance, 19.3: Food Science & Nutrition)
UNIT-I: General chemistry of food constituents, physical properties of foods, properties of cottoldal systems, gels and emulsions. Minerals in foods, physicochemical changes in foods during processing and storage, functions of food nutrients, dietary allowances and nutritional requirements. Metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and protein. Biological value and PER. Food additives, contaminants and anti-nutritional factors. Food flavors and puff- flavors. National and international food standards, modern analytical techniques in food analysis.
UNIT-II: Engineering properties of food materials, System analysis, mass and energy balance, Principles operations and equipment for food materials flow handling, cleaning, de-husking, sorting and grading; peeling, size reduction, mixing and forming, bakery foods manufacture, extrusion, separation, filtration and membrane processes, expression, baking roasting, frying, extraction and leaching, crystallization, distillation, blanching, pasteurization, sterilization, evaporation, drying, freezing, packing, heat exchanging, dairy specific operations. Process equipment design, heat and mass transfer, equipment for steam generation, compressed air, refrigeration and air conditioning, water and waste water treatment, biochemical engineering and thermo bacteriology. Automation, on-line data acquisition and process control. Food plant layout and design. Energy audit.
UNIT–III: Preparation and manufacturing technology of cereals and bakery products, beef, pork, poultry, fish & sea foods and egg, sausages and table ready meats, dairy products, fresh fruits, fresh vegetables, processed fruits, processed vegetables, Post Harvest Handling and storage of Fruits and Vegetables. Sugars, sweets, fats and oils, fermented foods, alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages, indigenous foods, fast, readymade and fashion foods. Dehydration and concentration methods, irradiation, microwave and solar processing of foods, food by-products & downstream processing, flavoring and pigment technology. Judging of food products, food plant management and legal aspects, food plant safety, risk and hazards. Effluent treatment and environment pollution, waste solids upgrading and treatment, food storage, functions of packaging, packaging operations, types of containers, FFS, hermetics closures, canning packaging materials and package testing, transportation and marketing food products.
UNIT –IV: Role of intrinsic and extrinsic properties of food in relation to microbial growth. Microbiology of fruits, fruit products, vegetables, soft drinks, bakery products, milk and milk products, milk, fish, egg and marine produces. Spoilage of foods, food pathogens and their toxins in relation to human health. Food preservation by sugar, salt, chemicals, heat, cold, irradiation, dehydration and packaging. Microbiology of fermented foods and beverages and factors affecting their quality. Methods for microbiological examination of foods, food hygiene and safety regulations. Water quality and waste disposal in food industry.
Code 20: Group– Agri-Business Management
(Sub-Subjects: 20.1: Agri-Business Management (MBA),20.2: Agricultural Marketing & Cooperation (M.Sc.))
UNIT-I: Social, political and economic structure in rural India. Importance of agriculture/forestry/ horticulture/livestock in national economy. Cultivation of major cereal crops, legume crops, vegetable crops, fruits and their importance in human diet. Major soils of India, essential plant nutrients, their role, deficiency symptoms and sources. Pests and diseases of major crops, vegetables, fruits and their management. Forestry production, pests and diseases management of major trees grown in India. Watershed management. Organizational set up of agricultural research, education and extension in India. Elements of statistics.
UNIT-II: Farm equipments and Farm Machinery in India, sources of energy and power on farms. Irrigation and drainage systems. Basics of post-harvest technology, Basics of energy in agriculture.
UNIT-III: Basics of veterinary, gynecology, veterinary microbiology, veterinary pathology and Parasitology, veterinary surgery, veterinary public health, veterinary pharmacology and toxicology.
UNIT-IV: Basics of human food and nutrition, human/child development, home and family resource management, clothing and textile.
UNIT-V: Quantitative ability: Test the ability of candidates to make mathematical calculations under stress conditions.
All these calculations will be based on analytical skills of the candidates with understanding of mathematics at Intermediate level.
UNIT-VI: Communicative ability: Test English comprehension wherein the knowledge of language skills are tested as to how effectively the candidate communicates his thoughts and ideas.
UNIT-VII: Data Interpretation: Calculations requiring skills of interpretation of facts and figures. The questions can be posed as graphs, tables and charts.
UNIT-VIII: Logical reasoning: Evaluating logical thinking capacity by providing various options.
UNIT-IX: Fundamentals of managerial economics, market structure conduct and performance, agricultural marketing concepts- functions and institutions, trade in agriculture sector; principles of corporation; cooperatives in India; agribusiness institutions in India; entrepreneurship development.
Besides above, any other topic of scientific, social and educational importance can also be included. Around
20–25% questions shall be related to agriculture and agriculture related science subjects including recent developments.
SYLLABUS FOR THE ALL INDIA COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION FOR ADMISSION TO DOCTORAL DEGREE PROGRAMMES AND THE AWARD OF JRF/SRF(PGS)
[NOTE: Section B comprising of 180 MCQs will contain questions from each of the Sub-subject listed under a Major Subject Group]
01. CROP SCIENCES-I
(1.1 Genetics & Plant Breeding, 1.2 Seed Science & Technology)
1.1 GENETICS & PLANT BREEDING
Unit 1: General Genetics and Plant Breeding
Mendelian inheritance. Cell structure and division, Linkage, its detection and estimation. Epistasis. Gene concept, allelism and fine structure of gene. Extra chromosomal inheritance. DNA – structure, function, replication and repair. Genetic code. Gene-enzyme relationship. Replication, Transcription and Translation. Gene regulation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Nuclear and cytoplasmic genome organization. Spontaneous and induced mutations and their molecular mechanisms. Crop domestication, evolution of crops and centres of diversity. Emergence of scientific plant breeding. Objectives and accomplishments in plant breeding and the role of National and International institutes. Gametogenesis and fertilization. Modes of sexual and asexual reproduction and its relation to plant breeding methodology. Apomixes, incompatibility and male sterility systems and their use in plant breeding.
Unit 2: Economics Botany and Plant Breeding Methods
Origin, distribution, classification, description and botany of cereals (wheat, rice, maize, sorghum, pearl millet, minor millets); pulses (pigeonpea, chickpea, black gram, green gram, cowpea, soyabean, pea, lentil, horse gram, lab-lab, rice bean, winged bean, lathyrus, Lima bean; oilseeds (groundnuts, sesamum, castor, rapeseed mustard, sunflower, Niger, linseed); fibers and sugar crops, fodder and green manures; Breeding methods for self-pollinated, cross-pollinated and clonally propagated crops. Component, recombinational and transgressive breeding. Single seed descent. Populations, their improvement methods and maintenance, Hybrid breeding and genetic basis of heterosis. Ideotype breeding. Mutation breeding, Concept of tree breeding.
Unit 3: Genome Organization and Cytogenetics of Crop Plants
Chromosome structure, function and replication. Recombination and crossing over. Karyotype analysis. Banding techniques. In situ hybridization. Special types of chromosomes. Chromosomal interchanges, inversions, duplications and deletions. Polyploids, haploids, aneuploids and their utility. Wide hybridization and chromosomal manipulations for alien gene transfer. Pre-and post- fertilization barriers in wide hybridization. Genome organization and cytogenetics of important crop species- wheat, maize, rice, sorghum, Brassica, cotton, Vigna, potato and sugarcane. Principles and procedures of genome analysis. Cytogenetic techniques foe gene location and gene transfer, Construction and use of molecular marker based chromosome maps. Comparative mapping and genome analysis.
Unit 4: Quantitative and Biometrical Genetics
Quantitative characters. Multiple factors inheritance. Genetic control of polygenic characters. Genetic advance and types of selection and correlated response. Hardy Weinberg law. Linkage disequilibrium. Genetic load. Polymorphism. Breeding value, heritability. Response to selection, correlated response. Estimates of variance components and covariance among relatives. Mating designs with random and inbred parents. Estimation of gene effects and combing ability. Effects of linkage and epistasis on estimation of genetic parameters. Maternal effects. Genotype-environment interactions and stability of performance. Heterosis and its basis. Mating system and mating design- diallel, line X tester, NC-1, NC-II and NC-III designs, approaches to estimate and exploit component of self and cross pollinated crops. Genotype X environment interaction and stability analysis.
Unit 5: Genetic Engineering and Biotechnological Tools in Plant Breeding
Somatic hybridization, micropropagation, somaclonal variation in vitro mutagenesis. Artificial synthesis of gene. Genetic and molecular markers, generations of molecular markers and their application in genetic analyses and breeding. Molecular markers in genetic diversity analysis and breeding for complex characters. Gene tagging, QTL mapping and marker aided selection. Genome projects and utilization of sequence formation. Vectors. DNA libraries, DNA fingerprinting, DNA sequencing. Nuclei acid hybridization and immunochemical detection. Chromosome walking, Recombinant DNA technology, Gene cloning strategies. Genetic transformation and transgenics. Antisense RNA, RNAi and micro RNA techniques in crop improvement.
Unit 6: Plant Breeding for Stress Resistance and Nutritional Quality
Genetic basis and breeding for resistance to diseases and insect-pests. Breeding for vertical and horizontal resistance to diseases. Genetic and physiological basis of abiotic stress tolerance. Breeding for resistance to heat, frost, flood, drought and soil stresses. Important quality parameters in various crops, their genetic basis and breeding for these traits. Role of molecular markers in stress resistance breeding: MAS, MARS and MABB.
Unit 7: Plant Genetic Resources and their Regulatory System; Varietal Release and Seed Production
Plant exploration, germplasm introduction, exchange, conservation, evaluation and utilization of plant genetic resources. Convention on Biological Diversity and International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. Intellectual Property Rights. Biodiversity Act. Plant Variety Protection and Farmers' Rights Act. System of variety release and notification. Types of seeds and seed chain. Seed production and certification.
Unit 8: Statistical Methods and Field Plot Techniques
Frequency distribution. Measures of central tendency, probability theory and its applications in genetics. Probability distribution and tests of significance. Correlation, linear, partial and multiple regression. Genetic divergence. Multivariate analysis. Design of experiments- basic principles, completely randomized design, randomized block design and split plot design. Complete and incomplete block designs. Augmented design, Grid and honeycomb design. Hill plots, unreplicated evaluation. Data collection and interpretation.
1.2 SEED SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
Unit 1 : Seed Biology
Floral biology, mode of reproduction, sporogenesis, pollination, fertilization, embryogenesis, fruit & seed development and physiological and harvestable maturity. Apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony and somatic embryoids and synthetic seeds. Seed structure of monocot and dicot. Seed maturation and longevity in orthodox and recalcitrant seed. Chemical composition of seed. Seed dormancy - types, causes and mechanisms of induction and release, factors affecting, methods to overcome dormancy and its significance in agriculture. Seed germination - requirements, imbibition pattern, physiological and biochemical changes, and role of hormones.
Unit 2 : Seed Production
Introduction to crop breeding methods. Variety testing, release and notification. Genetic purity concept and factors responsible for deterioration of varieties. Maintenance breeding. General system of seed multiplication. Seed production agencies. Identification of seed production areas and factors affecting it. Compact area approach in seed production. Seed production planning, equipment, input and manpower requirement. Factors affecting pollination and seed set viz., temperature, humidity, wind velocity, insect pollinators, and supplementary pollination. Male sterility, self-incompatibility and their role in hybrid seed production. Heterosis and hybrid vigour. Techniques of hybrid seed production - emasculation and dusting, detasseling, male sterility, sex expression, self-incompatibility and chemical hybridizing agents. Principles and methods of seed production of varieties and hybrids of cereals like wheat, paddy, sorghum, pearl millet and maize; pulses like chickpea, pigeon pea, green gram, black gram, soybean and cowpea; oilseeds like groundnut, brassica, sesame, sunflower and castor; fibre crops like cotton and jute; vegetables crops like tomato, brinjal, okra, chilli, important cole and cucurbitaceous crops; important forage legumes and grasses and seed crop management, time of harvesting and threshing/extraction methods. Seed production technology of plantation crops like coffee, tea, rubber, cocoa, cardamom and pepper. Disease free clonal propagation of crops like potato, sugarcane sweet potato, tapioca, colocasia, betel vine, fruit crops like mango, citrus, banana, guava, sapota, pineapple, grape, apple, pear, plum, peach, apricot and seed production and clonal propagation of annual and perennial flowers like rose, gladiolus, chrysanthemum, marigold, dahlia, phlox and petunia. Clonal standards and degenerations. Micro propagation.
Unit 3 : Seed Processing
Principles of seed processing. Seed drying principles and methods. Pre-cleaning, grading, treatment, pelleting and packaging. Harvesting and seed extraction methods. Seed invigoration and enhancement treatment and their applications. Seed processing machines like cleaner cum grader, specific gravity separator, indented cylinder, seed treater, weighing and bagging machines, their operation and maintenance. Seed quality maintenance during processing.
Unit 4: Seed Quality Control
Seed legislation - Seeds Act 1966, Seed Rules 1969 and New Seed Bill 2004, Seed Law Enforcement. Seed certification – history, concept, organization, phases and minimum certification standards. Field inspection principles and methods. Inspection at harvesting, threshing and processing. Pre-and post-quality testing or genetic purity. Seed Certification Schemes, concepts and procedures. Seed Testing concepts and objectives, its role in seed quality control. Seed sampling, seed moisture testing, purity analysis, germination testing, tolerance tests and equipment. Seed testing procedures for principal agri horticultural crops. Quick viability tests. Seed vigour, its significance and testing methods. Testing for genuineness of varieties – principles and methods based on seed, seedling and plant characters, biochemical techniques namely electrophoresis of proteins and isoenzymes and DNA fingerprinting. International Seed Testing Association (ISTA), its role in development of seed testing procedures, rules and seed quality assurance for international seed trade.
Unit 5 : Seed Storage
Requirements and types of seed storage. Factors affecting seed storage and role of moisture, temperature, RH and moisture equilibrium. Viability nomographs. Seed deterioration causes and methods of control. Physiological, biochemical and molecular changes in seed ageing. Longevity of orthodox and recalcitrant seeds. Seed drying and Packaging needs. Storage structures. Methods of stacking and their impact. Short and medium term storage. Controlled storage. Germplasm storage. Cryo preservation. Design features of short, medium and long-term seed storage buildings. Operation and management of seed stores.
Unit 6 : Seed Health
Significance of seed health. Mode and mechanism of transmission of microorganisms - fungi, bacteria and viruses. Procedures for seed health test and rules. Externally and internally seed - borne pathogens, mode of infection, development and spread, methods of detection of seed borne diseases. Important seed-borne diseases of cereals, oilseeds, pulses, fibre crops, vegetables and their control measures. Quarantine and International procedures of phytosanitary certificates. Important storage pests, their identification, monitoring and detection. ET value, nature and extent of damage, natural enemies and management. Use of pesticides, botanicals, mycotoxins for seed treatments. Carry over infestation, principles of fumigation and safe use of fumigants.
Unit 7: Seed Industry Development and Marketing
Trends in National and International seed industry development-OECD. International Seed Trade Federation (ISF) and Indian seed associations. Economics of seed production. Market survey, demand forecasting, pricing policies, marketing channels, planning and sales promotion. Buyer behavior and role of Government, semi Government, co-operative and private sectors in seed trade. Responsibilities of seed companies and dealers in Seed Act. Seed import and export.
Unit 8 : Protection of Plant Varieties
Plant Variety Protection (PVP) and its significance. Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers’ Right Act, 2001, its essential features. International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV) and its role in development of Plant breeders Rights and Seed Industry Development. Impact of PVP on seed supply system. DUS testing principles and application. Biodiversity Act. Criteria for protection of Essentially Derived Varieties (EDVs) and Genetically modified (GM) varieties.
02. CROP SCIENCES-II
(2.1 Plant Pathology, 2.2 Nematology, 2.3 Agricultural Entomology/Entomology, 2.4 Agricultural Chemicals)
2.1 PLANT PATHOLOGY
Unit 1: History and Principles of Plant Pathology
Milestones in phytopathology with particular reference to India. Major epidemics and their social impacts. Historical developments of chemicals, legislative, cultural and biological protection measures including classification of plant diseases. Physiologic specialization, Koch’s postulates. Growth, reproduction, survival and dispersal of plant pathogens. Factors influencing infection, colonization and development of symptoms.
Unit 2: Laboratory and Analytical Techniques
Preparation and sterilization of common media. Methods of isolation of pathogens and their identification. Preservation of microorganisms in pure culture. Methods of inoculation. Measurement of plant disease. Molecular detection of pathogens in seeds and other planting materials: Nucleic acid probes, Southern, Northern and Western hybridization, ELISA, ISEM and PCR. Laboratory equipment and their use: autoclave, hot air oven, laminar flow, spectrophotometer, electrophoresis, light and electron microscopy, incubator, ultracentrifuge, ELISA Reader.
Unit 3: Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology
Altered metabolism of plants under biotic and abiotic stresses. Molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis: elicitors, recognition phenomenon, penetration, invasion, primary disease determinant. Enzymes and toxins in relation to plant disease. Mechanisms of resistance, Structural and Biochemical defense mechanisms. R-Genes, Phytoanticipins. Phytoalexins. PR proteins, Hydroxyproline rich glycoproteins (HRGP). Antiviral proteins. SAR and ISR. HR and active oxygen radicals. Tissue culture. Somaclonal variation and somatic hybridization. Elementary genetic engineering. Management of pathogens through satellite, antisense - RNA. Ribozymes, coat protein, RNA interference, plantibodies, hypovirulence, cross protection. Useful genes and promoters, plant transformation techniques, biosafety and bioethics.
Unit 4: Mycology
Classification of fungi. Life cycles of important phytopathogenic fungi. Economic mycology, edible fungi and entomogenous fungi. Mycorrhizal associations. Cell organelles, their morphology, functions and chemical composition.
Unit 5: Plant Bacteriology
Identification and classification of bacteria. morphology, ultrastructure and chemical composition of prokaryotic cell in relation to function. Growth curve, nutrition and auxotrophic mutants. Resting cells in prokaryotic, elementary bacterial genetics and variability: transformation, conjugation, transduction. Biology of extra chromosomal elements: plasmid borne genes and their expression: avr, her, vie and pat genes. Bacteriophages: lytic and lysogenic cycles. Prokaryotic inhibitors and their mode of action. Economic uses of prokaryotes. Morphology, biochemical characteristics, reproduction and life cycle of phytoplasma and other fastidious prokaryotes.
Unit 6: Plant Virology
Nature, composition and architecture of viruses and viroids. Properties of viruses. Variability in viruses. Satellite viruses and satellite RNA. Assay of plant viruses including biological, physical, chemical, serological and molecular methods. Conventional and biotechnological techniques used in detection and diagnosis. Behaviour of viruses in plants including infection, replication and movement. Histopathological changes induced by viruses in plants, inclusion bodies. Transmission of viruses: virus - vector relationships. Nomenclature and classification of viruses.
Unit 7: Plant Disease Epidemiology
Concepts in epidemiology. Development of disease in plant population. Monocyclic and polycyclic pathogens. Role of environment and meteorological factors in the development of plant disease epidemics. Survey, surveillance (including through remote sensing), and prediction and forecasting of diseases. Epidemic analysis and prediction models. Crop loss assessment: critical and multiple point models.
Unit 8: Phanerogamic Parasites and Non-parasitic Diseases
Diseases caused by Phanerogamic parasites and their management. Diseases due to unfavourable soil environment, drought and flooding stress etc. Nutritional deficiencies. Primary /secondary air pollutants and acid rain.
Unit 9: Fungal Diseases of Crop Plants
Fungal diseases of cereals, millets, oilseeds, pulses, fruits, vegetables, plantation, fiber, spices and ornamental crops with special reference to etiology, disease cycle, perpetuation, epidemiology and management. Post-harvest diseases in transit and storage; aflatoxins and other mycotoxins and their integrated management.
Unit 10: Bacterial and Viral Diseases of Crop Plants
Crop diseases of cereals, pulses, oilseeds, vegetables, fruits, plantation and fiber crops caused by bacteria, viruses, viroids, phytoplasmas and other fastidious prokaryotes. Mode of transmission and pathogen vector relationships. Epidemiology and management.
Unit 11: Management of Plant diseases
General principles of plant quarantine. Exotic pathogens and pathogens introduced into India. Sanitary and phytosanitary issues under WTO, TRIPS and PRA. Genetic basis of disease resistance and pathogenicity: gene for gene hyphothesis; parasite mediated frequency -dependent selection concept of QTL mapping; breeding for disease resistance. Production of disease free seeds and planting materials. Seed certification. Chemical nature and classification of fungicides and antibiotics: their bioassay and compatibility with other agricultural chemicals; resistance to fungicides/ antibiotics; effect on environment. Spraying and dusting equipments, their care and maintenances. Important cultural practices and their role in disease management, solarization, integrated disease management. Microorganisms antagonistic to plant pathogens in soil, rhizosphere and phyllosphere and their use in the control of plant diseases; soil fungistasis. Plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria. Biotechnology for crop disease management.
Unit 1: History and Economic Importance
History and economic importance of nematology; Diseases caused by plant-parasitic nematodes-symptomatology, biology, distribution and management of plant parasitic nematodes of economic importance (Pratylenchus, Radopholus, Hirschmanniella, Meloidogyne, Heterodera, Globodera, Rotylenchulus, Tylenchulus, Ditylenchus, Anguina, Aphelenchoides, Tylenchorhynchus, Helicotylenchus, Hoplolaimus, Scutellonema, Paratylenchus, etc.). Entomopathogenic nematodes. Importance of saprophytes in organic matter recycling. Nematodes as indicators of pollution and toxicity. Predacious Nematodes.
Unit 2 : Nematode Taxonomy and Morphology
Principles and concepts of taxonomy. Rules of nomenclature. Nematode phylogeny and systematics. Classification of soil and plant -parasitic nematodes and their relationships with other related phyla. Detailed classification of plant - parasitic nematodes up to generic level with emphasis on genera of economic importance. General morphology and anatomy of nematodes. Various systems: digestive,, excretory, nervous, reproductive etc., developmental biology of nematodes.
Unit 3 : Nematological Techniques
Methods of extraction of nematodes from soil and plant material. Microscopy - principles and types including electron microscopes. Methods of killing, fixing, preserving, staining, mounting and measuring of nematodes. Techniques for histopathology and culturing of nematodes - plant parasitic, entomophilic and saprophytic including axenic methods. Experimental techniques for proving pathogenicity, estimation of crop losses, nematicide screening, screening and evaluation for nematode resistance in crops. Molecular technique for nematode diagnostics. Techniques for mass culturing of entomopathogenic nematode antagonistic bioagents.
Unit 4 : Nematode Ecology
Ecological classification and distribution of nematodes. Mode of nematode dispersal. Adaptations to parasite mode of life. Soil as environment for nematodes. Effect of biotic and abiotic factors on nematode survival, activity and reproduction. Nematode population dynamics. Nematode -induced plant damage and modelling. Community analysis.
Unit 5 : Plant Nematode Relationships
Types of parasitism in nematodes. Nature of damage caused by various groups of plant parasitic nematodes and mechanisms involved. Pathotypes in nematodes. Mechanism of nematode resistance and tolerance in plants and its assessment. Physiological, biochemical and molecular changes in plants due to nematode infections.
Unit 6 : Nematode Physiology and Cytology
Chemical composition of nematodes. Principles of nematode physiology. Physiological functions of cell; organelles. Physiology of respiration, digestion, excretion, reproduction, growth and development. Physiology of muscular, nervous and sensory responses. Physiology of moulting, hatching and nematode survival. Chemoreception in nematodes. Nematode as biological models - Caenorhabditis elegans. Cytological changes in plants due to infection including syncytia, giant cell formation and their modification etc.
Unit 7 : Nematode Management
Principles and methods of nematode management - physical, cultural biological, chemical and legislative, Nematicides (including those of biological origin) - history, classification, formulations, application and mode of action. Host resistance for nematode management. Integrated nematode management. Role of biotechnology in nematode management.
Unit 8 : Interactions of Nematodes with Soil Organisms
Importance of interactions (interrelationships) of nematodes with soil organisms. Interactions of nematodes with bacteria, fungi, viruses, mycorrhizae and other nematodes. Nematodes as vectors of viruses and other microorganisms.
Unit 9 : Statistics
Frequency distribution. Measures of central tendency and dispersion: mean, median, mode, standard deviation etc. Population distributions : normal, binomial and Poisson. Correlations: partial and multiple. Tests of significance: t, F and Chi square and randomized block, Latin square and split plot designs, their analysis and interpretation.
2.3 AGRICULTURAL ENTOMOLOGY/ENTOMOLOGY
Unit 1: Systematics
History and development of Entomology, Evolution of insects, position of insects in the animal world, characteristics of phylum Arthropoda, structural features of important arthropod groups such as Trilobita, Chelicerata and Mandibulata, structural features of important classes of phylum Arthropoda viz. Arachnida, Crustacea, Chilopoda, Diplopoda and Hexapoda. Classification of insects up to order level, habits, habitats and distinguishing features of different Order and important Families.
Unit 2: Morphology
Body wall, its structure, outgrowths, endoskeleton, Body regions, segmentation, sclerites and sutures, Insect Colors. Head and head appendages, types of mouth parts, antennae, their structure and types. Thorax structure, thoracic appendages and their modification. Wings, their modification and venation, Abdomen; structure, abdominal appendages both in Pterygota and Apterygota. External genitalia, general structure and modification in important insect orders.
Unit 3: Embryology, Internal Anatomy and Physiology
Embryonic and post embryonic development, types of metamorphosis, physiology of ecdysis. General features and types of larvae and pupae. Structure, function and physiology of Digestive, Circulatory, Respiratory, Reproductive, Nervous and Excretory systems, Sense Organs; structure and types. Insect food and nutrition; minerals, carbohydrates, proteins and amino acids, lipids, vitamins and their role in growth and development, artificial diets.
Unit 4: Ecology
Concept of ecology, Environment and its components-biotic and abiotic factors and their effects on growth, development, population dynamics, distribution and dispersal. Principle of biogeography and insects biodiversity. Assessment of diversity indices. Biotic potential and environmental resistance. Ecosystems, agroecosystems analysis, their characteristics and functioning. Intra and inter specific relationship; competition, predator-prey and host-parasite interactions, ecological niche. Life table studies, population models. Food chain and food web. Arthropod population monitoring, pest forecasting. Diapause and causes of pest out breaks.
Unit 5: Biological Control
Importance and scope of biological control, history of biological control: Biocontrol agents-parasites, predators and insect pathogens. Important entomophagous insect Orders and Families. Ecological, biological, taxonomic, legal and economic aspects of biological control, phenomena of multiple parasitism, hyperparasitism, superparasitism and their applied importance. Principles and procedures of using exotic biocontrol agents. Utilization of natural biocontrol agents: conservation, habitat management and augmentation. Mass multiplication techniques and economics. Effective evaluation techniques, Biocontrol organizations in world and India. Successful cases of biological control of pests. Use of biotechnological tools in enhancing the potentials of Bio-Control Agents.
Unit 6: Chemical Control and Toxicology
History, scope and principles of chemical control. Insecticides and their classification. Formulations of insecticides. Susceptibility of insects to the entry of insecticides. Physical, chemical and toxicological properties of different groups of insecticides: chlorinated hydrocarbons, organophosphates, carbamates, synthetic pyrethroids, chlordimeform, chitin synthesis inhibitors, avermectins, nitroguanidines, phenylpyrrozzoles, botanicals (natural pyrethroids, rotenone, neem products, nicotine, pongamia spp. etc). Chloronicotinyl, pyrozole, phenylpyrrozzoles, oxadiazines, benzamidazole, neristoxin, rodenticides, insect hormones, Insecticide induced resurgence. Combination insecticides. Problems of pesticide hazards and environmental pollution. Safe use of pesticides, precautions and first aid treatments. Insecticides Act 1968, registration and quality control of insecticides. Evaluation of toxicity, methods of toxicity testing, determination of LD 50, LT 50, RL 50 etc. Pesticides residues in the environment and their dynamics of movements, methods of residue. Pharmacology of insect poisons. Mode of action of different groups of insecticides; neuroactive (axonal and synaptic) poisons, respiratory poisons, chitin synthesis inhibitors. Metabolism of insecticides; activative and degradative metabolism, detoxification enzymes and their role in metabolism. Selectivity of insecticidal actions; insecticide resistance; mechanism, genetics and management of insecticide resistance.
Unit 7: Host Plant Resistance
Chemical ecology: mechano- and chemoreceptors. Host plant selection by phytophagous insects. Secondary plant substances and their defenses against phytophagous insect. Basis of resistance (Antixenosis, Antobiosis, Tolerance). Biotypes development and its remedial measures. Tritrophic interactions, induced resistance. Breeding for insect resistant plant varieties. Resistance development and evaluation techniques. Genetics of Resistance: vertical resistance, horizontal resistance, oligogenic resistance, polygenic resistance. Biotechnological approaches and development of transgenic insect resistant plants, its advantages and limitations. Case histories. Insect resistance to transgenic plants and its management.
Unit 8: Innovative Approaches in Pest Control
Behavioral control: pheromones-types and uses, advantages and limitations. Hormonal control: types and function of insect hormones, insect hormone mimics, advantages and limitations. chemosterilants, antifeedants, attractants, repellents; their types, method of applications, advantages and limitations. Genetic control: concepts and methods, case histories, advantages and limitations. Potentialities of IPM.
Unit 9: Integrated Pest Management
History, concept and principles of IPM. Components of IPM: Host plant resistance, agronomic manipulations, mechanical and physical methods, chemical methods, biocontrol agents utilization, genetic and behavioral control strategy etc. IPM strategies for field and horticultural crops. IPM case histories. Concept of damage levels- Economic threshold levels (ETL), Economic injury levels (EIL) and their determination. System approach, Agro ecosystem and cropping system vs. IPM. Constraints and Strategies of IPM implementation. Plant quarantine laws and regulations.
Unit 10: Pesticide Application Equipments
Types of appliances: sprayers, dusters, fog generators, smoke generators, soil injecting guns, seed treating drums, flame throwers, etc. Power operated sprayers and dusters. Types of nozzles and their uses. Maintenance of appliances. Aerial application of pesticides, principles of aerial application, factors affecting the effectiveness of aerial application. Equipments for aerial applications. Advantages and disadvantages of aerial application.
Unit 11: Pests of Field Crops and their Management
Distribution, host range, biology and bionomics, nature of damage and management of arthropod pests of cereals, Oilseed, pulses and fibre crops, sugarcane and tobacco. Polyphagous pests: locusts, termites, hairy catepillars, cut worms and white grubs.
Unit 12: Pests of Horticultural Crops and their Management
Distribution, host range, biology and bionomics, nature of damage and management of arthropod pests of vegetables, fruits and plantation crops, spices, condiments and ornamentals, Vertebrate Pests.
Unit 13: Pests of Stored Products and their Management
Fundamentals of storage of grains and grain products. Storage losses, sources of infestation/infection, factors influencing losses, insect and non-insect pests, their nature of damage and control. Microflora in storage environment and their control. Storage structures, bulk storage and bag storage, their relative efficacy and demerits. Grain drying methods and aeration. Non-insect pests (rodents, birds, mites) of stored products and their control. Regulated and quarantine pests. Integrated management of storage pests.
Unit 14: Arthropod Vectors of Plant Diseases
Common arthropod vectors viz., aphids, leaf hoppers, plant hoppers, whiteflies, thrips, psylids, beetles, weevils, flies, bees and mites and their relationship with the plant pathogenic fungi, bacteria, viruses, mycoplasma. Mechanism of pathogen transmission : Active mechanical transmission, biological transmission. Toxicogenic insects, mites and phytotoxemia. Some important arthropod vector transmitted diseases and their epidemiology in India. Management of vector and its effect on control of diseases.
Unit 15: Honey Bees and Bee-keeping
Honey bees and their economic importance. Bee species, their behaviour, habit and habitats. Bee Keeping: bee pasturage, hives and equipments, seasonal management. Bee enemies including diseases and their control.
Unit 16: Silkworms and Sericulture
Silkworm species, their systematic position and salient features. Rearing techniques of mulberry - muga, eri and tassar silkworms. Nutritional requirements of silkworms. Sericulture: rearing house and appliances, silkworm breeds, principles of voltism and nioultism, seed production and its economics. Different molecular approaches in developing silkworm breeds. Silkworm genomics- a model genetic system- transgenic silkworm- production of foreign proteins. Mulberry pests, diseases and their management. By products of sericulture and its value addition, uses in pharmaceutical industry. Enemies and diseases of silkworms and their management. Sericulture organization in India.
Unit 17: Lac Insect
Lac insect, its biology, habit and habitats. Host Trees: pruning, inoculation, lac cropping techniques, and harvesting. Enemies of lac insect and their control.
Unit 18: Other Useful Insects
Pollinators, biocontrol agents of weeds, soil fertility improving agents, scavengers. Use of insects and insect products in medicines. Usefulness of insects in scientific investigations, insects as food.
Unit 19: Statistics and Computer Application
Frequency distribution, mean, mode and median. Standard, normal, bionomial and Poisson’s distribution, Sampling methods and standard errors. Correlation and regression: Partial and multiple, tests of significance; t, F, chi- square, Duncan’s multiple range tests. Design of experiments: Principles of Randomized block design, Completely randomized block design, Latin square design, Split-plot designs. Probit analysis. Use of software packages like SPSS, SAS, etc. for the above tests and designs of experiments for analysis.
2.4 AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS
Unit 1: General Chemistry
Surface chemistry, pH, Buffer solutions; Redox reactions, Chemical kinetics, Stereochemistry and chirality, diastereoisomerism, tautomerism, atropisomerism, asymmetric synthesis, nomenclature of organic molecules, displacement, elimination, addition, rearrangement, SN1 and SN2 reactions, reaction involving free radicals, and carbene intermediates, Organic reagents and catalysts in organic synthesis,. Beckmann, Claisen condensation, Hofmann-Loffler-Freytag reaction, Petrno-Buchi reaction, Curlius, Michael, Kolbes, Arndt-Eistert and Wittig reaction. Reformatsky reaction., Barton reaction, Umpolung reaction, Norrish Type I & II reactions.
Unit 2: Chromatography and Spectroscopic Techniques
Basic principles and application of chromatography; column, paper, thin layer, and ion exchange chromatography; gas liquid chromatography (GLC); high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); UV, FT-IR; NMR and mass spectroscopy; GC-MS and LC-MS techniques and their applications.
Unit 3: Chemistry of Natural Products
Extraction of natural products; Classification, structure, chemistry, properties and function of carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, enzymes, nucleic acids, vitamins, lipids, and polymers. Chemisty of terpenoids, alkaloids, phenolics, plant pigments, steroidal and triterpenic saponins and sapogenins; juvenile and moulting hormones; Plant derived nutraceuticals; Chemistry of natural antioxidants and food colorants and their application in human and crop health. Biosynthetic pathways of natural products.
Unit 4 : Naturally Occurring Insecticides
Natural pyrethroids, nicotine, rotenone, neem and karanj based botanical pesticides; microbial macrolides (avermectins and milbemycins), agricultural antibiotics, semiochemicals; insect pheromones-types and uses, insect hormones, insect growth regulators; Plant hormones, phytoalexins, essential oils and their pest control properties; advantages and limitations of natural pesticides; juvenile hormones, juvenile hormone mimics and anti-JH; chemosterilants, insect antifeedants, insect attractants and repellents; microbial pesticides; Application of plant biotechnology in crop protection, herbicide tolerant and insect resistant transgenic plants.
Unit 5: Synthetic Insecticides, Fungicides, Nematicides and Rodenticides
History, scope and principles of chemical insect control; Insecticides and their classification Chemistry of major groups of insecticides (organo-chlorine, organo-phosphorus, organo-carbamates, synthetic pyrethroids, neonicotinoids), fungicides (inorganics, dithiocarbamates, OP’s, phenols, quinines, carboxamides, azoles, methoxyacrylates), rodenticides, Insect growth regulators; Chitin synthesis inhibitors, insecticide synergists, fumigants. Mode of action of different groups of insecticides, fungicides and nematicides.
Unit 6: Herbicides and Plant Growth Regulators
Physical, chemical and toxicological properties of different groups of herbicides (pheoxyacids, carbamates, amides, tiazines, phenyl ureas, dinitroanilines, bipyridiliums, sulfonyl ureas), Herbicide safeners, Plant growth regulators – auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, ethylene, abscisic acid; Brassinolides; Mode of action of different groups of herbicides.
Unit 7: Agrochemical Formulations
Basic concepts of pesticide formulation - classification, solid and liquid formulations; preparation, properties, uses; controlled release formulations; Formulants - carriers/ diluents, surfactants, encapsulants, binders, anti-oxidants, stabilizers; Application - devices and quality of deposits; Types of spray appliances, seed treatment and dressing; nanotechnology in crop protection, Tools to develop and measure nanoparticles.
Unit 8: Pesticide Residues and their Dynamics in the Environment
Pesticide residues- concepts and toxicological significance; pesticide dynamics in agro ecosystem, biotic and abiotic transformations affecting fate of pesticides. Experimental design, sampling, principles of extraction and clean-up from different substrates; Application of ELISA and radiotracer techniques in pesticide residue analysis; new cleanup techniques, QUECHERS, ASE (Accelerated solvent extraction); Multi-residue methods; Bound and conjugated residues; Method validation - linearity, LOD and LOQ, microbial and photochemical degradation, adsorption/ desorption, leaching in soil.
Unit 9: Agrochemicals – Regulation and Quality Control
Production, consumption and trade statistics of pesticides and fertilizers; banned and restricted pesticides, registration and quality control of insecticides; Laws, Acts and Rules governing registration and regulations of agrochemical production and use; key provisions of the Insecticides Act (1968), Environmental Protection Act (1986). Pesticide Management Bill, EPA, Food Safety and Standards Act, WHO, FAO, CODEX and national/international guidelines; Quality Control, Sanitary/phyto-sanitary issues in relation to food safety, good laboratory practices, Accreditation certificate, Pesticide stewardship.
Unit 10: Natural Resource Management
Soil, plant and microbial biodiversity, Characteristics and classification of natural resources; Major soil groups of India their characteristics, management strategies for natural resources; integrated pest and pesticide management; Essential plant nutrients (major, secondary and micro), organic manures (farm yard, compost, sewage sludge, green manure, biogas slurries, etc); production and manufacture and uses of various nitrogenous, phosphatic, potassic and complex fertilizers and fertilizer mixtures, liquid fertilizers, biofertilizers, integrated plant nutrient systems; benefits, disadvantages and environmental toxicity. Nitrification inhibitors to enhance nitrogen use efficiency, Hydrogels and their application in agriculture, soil conditioners and amendments, toxicity issues.
Unit 11: Environment Pollution: Implications and Remediation
Problems of pesticide hazards and environmental pollution; Adverse effects of pesticides on micro-flora, fauna and on other non-target organisms; Effect of pesticide on soil health, persistent organic pollutants, and their effect on ecosystem. Adverse effect of industrial effluent on the soil and aquatic environment; disposal of obsolete and outdated pesticides; physical, chemical and microbial decontamination and detoxification of pesticides. Agrochemicals and homeland security, misuse of agrochemicals (pesticides and fertilizers), hazard mitigation plans or strategies, analytical and bioassay techniques to assess off-farm migration of agrochemicals into natural waters, ozone depletion causing agrochemicals
Unit 12: Data Analysis
Methods of statistical analysis as applied to agricultural data – standard deviation, standard error, accuracy and precision, analysis of variance (ANOVA), correlation and regression; t-test, chi-square (X2), F test, Probit analysis.
03. CROP SCIENCES-III
( 3.1 Plant Biochemistry/Biochemistry, 3.2 Plant Physiology/Crop Physiology, 3.3 Agricultural Biotechnology/Biotechnology/Molecular Biology & Biotechnology,
3.4 Agricultural Microbiology/Microbiology)
3.1 PLANT BIOCHEMISTRY
Unit 1: Basic Biochemistry and Biomolecules
Scope and importance of biochemistry and molecular biology in plants. Structural and functional organization of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, viruses and bacteriophages, cell organelles function and their fractionation. Chemical bonding in biological systems, pH and buffers. Thermodynamics and bioenergetics- concept of entropy, and free energy changes in biological reactions, Redox reactions, Role of high energy phosphates. Biomembranes. Classification structure, chemistry, properties and function of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. Components of immune system, Prostaglandins.
Unit 2: Intermediary Metabolism
Anabolism, catabolism and their regulation. Metabolism of carbohydrates – glycolytic pathway, HMP pathway, TCA cycle, glyoxylate pathway and gluconeogenesis. Biological oxidation- electron transfer and oxidative phosphorylation. Lipid metabolism, degradation and biosynthesis of fatty acids, ketogenesis and causes of ketosis. Biosynthesis of sterols and phospholipids. Amino acid metabolism – catabolism of amino acids, transamination and deamination, urea cycle, biosynthesis of amino acids. Conversion of amino acids into bioactive compounds. Metabolism of nucleic acids-degradation and biosynthesis of purines, pyrimidines and nucleotides. Integration of carbohydrate, lipid and amino acid metabolism. Signal transduction mechanisms. Role of G-proteins, cyclic nucleotides and calcium in transduction. Disorders of lipid, carbohydrate, nucleic acid, amino acid metabolism. Inborn errors of metabolism. Secondary metabolites, biotransformation and over expression.
Unit 3: Enzymes, Vitamins and Hormones
Major classes of enzymes, general properties, kinetics, active site and its mapping, activation energy and transition state. Mechanisms of enzyme action, inhibition and activation. Coenzymes and cofactors. Isoenzymes and immobilized enzymes. Regulation of enzyme activity, allosteric regulation. Multi substrate reactions, kinetic experiments to determine the mechanism of multi substrate reactions. Isolation, purification and measurement of enzyme activity. Enzyme units. Enzyme engineering. Role of enzymes in agriculture, industry, and medicine. Structure, mode of action and metabolic functions of vitamins. Deficiency diseases associated with vitamins. General description of nature hormones and disorders associated with endocrine glands, viz. pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, pancreas and gonads. Peptide and steroid hormones. Phytohormones – auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, ethylene, abscisic acid and new plant bio-regulators like SA, Brassinosteroids.
Unit 4: Molecular Biology
Structure of DNA and RNA Replication, transcription and translation. Post-transcriptional and translational modifications. Transcriptional and translation control of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Features of genetic code in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Gene expression - operon model, induction and repression, control of gene expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Chloroplast and Mitochondrial genomes. Replication of viruses. Mutagens, oncogenes and carcinogenesis. General principles of recombinant DNA technology, restriction enzymes. Methods of gene transfer-plasmid and viruses as vectors, DNA and protein sequence analysis, oligonucleotide synthesis, genomic and cDNA library construction, site-directed mutagenesis, transposon tagging, chromosome walking. Basics of genome organization and mapping, functional genomics. Gene silencing. Methods for the development of transgenic organisms. Computer application in molecular biology, primer designing, sequence analysis and phylogenetic analysis. Benefits of gene manipulation in agriculture, nanobiotechnology, bio-chips.
Unit 5: Techniques in Biochemistry
Principles of optical, phase contrast, fluorescence and electron microscopy, spectrophotometry, UV and VIS, fluorimetry, turbidometry and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Radioisotopic techniques – scintillation counters and autoradiography and their application in biological sciences. Electrophoresis - general principles and application, gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, pulsed field gel electrophoresis, immunoelectrophoresis. Chromatographic techniques - paper, thin layer, column chromatography, GC and HPLC. Centrifugation - principles of sedimentation in various rotors, differential centrifugation, density gradient centrifugation and ultracentrifugation. Cell tissue and organ culture. Cryopreservation, PCR and application of RFLP, RAPD, AFLP, microsatellite and mitochondrial and ribotyping techniques. Southern, Northern and Western blotting, ELISA. Microarray and DNA chips. Preliminary methods of statistical analysis as applied to agricultural data – standard deviation, standard error, ANOVA, correlation and regression.
Unit 6: Biochemistry of Food-grains, Fruits and Vegetables
Fundamentals of nutrition, concept of balanced diet. Nutritional quality of protein and its evaluation. Dietary fibre. Vitamins- biochemical functions and deficiency diseases. Fats and lipids-types of fatty acids and their significance in health. Biochemical composition and food value of various food grains (including cereals, pulses, oil seeds), fruits and vegetables. Biochemistry of fruit ripening, biochemical aspects of post-harvest technology, storage and preservation. Biochemical basis of quality improvement of food grains, vegetables and fruits. Antioxidants, nutraceuticals. Food toxins and anti-metabolites, food additives, storage proteins.
Unit 7: Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis – photosynthetic pigments, light reactions, photosystems. Photophosphorylation, dark reactions: C3, C4 and CAM pathways. Regulation of Rubisco. Chemisomotic coupling. Carbon cycle and its regulation, Ion fluxes and conformational changes during photosynthesis. Photorespiration. Relationship between photosynthesis, photorespiration and crop productivity. Chloroplasm morphology, structure and biochemical anatomy. Cytosolic and organelle interactions. Nature and exchange of metabolites through translocators. Seed reserve biosynthesis.
Unit 8: Plant Metabolic Processes
Uptake and metabolism of mineral nutrients in plants. Sulphur metabolism. Nitrogen cycle, nitrate and nitrite reduction, denitrification, symbiotic and non-symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Biochemical and physiological role of hydrogenase. Chemoautrotrophy in rhizobia and nitrifying bacteria. Cell cycle. Growth regulation in plants. Signal transduction and phytohormones. Molecular mechanisms of plant growth, hormone action. Role of oligosaccharides and polysaccharides in cellular metabolism. Metabolism of cyanogenic glycosides and glucosinolates.
Unit 9: Plant Molecular Biology
General organization of nuclear, mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes. Genomics and functional genomics. Tissue specific expression of genes. Molecular biology of various stresses – drought, salinity and temperature. Signal transduction and its molecular basis: molecular mechanism of plant hormone action. Structure, organization and regulation of nuclear genes. Genes involved in photosynthesis and
nitrogen fixation. Regulation of chloroplast gene expression. Mitochondrial control of fertility. Molecular markers in plants and their uses.
Unit 10: Plant Biotechnology/Genetic Engineering
Totipotency, application of tissue culture for plant improvement, cryopreservation. Protoplasm fusion. General principles of gene cloning. Isolation and characterization of plant genes and promoters. Different methods of gene transfer –direct and vector mediated. Gene silencing. Site directed mutagenesis. Molecular analysis of transformants. Potential applications of plant genetic engineering for crop improvement – insect-pest resistance (insect, viral, fungal and bacterial diseases). Abiotic stress tolerance, herbicide resistance, storage protein quality improvement, increasing shelf- life, oil quality. Biosafety and IPR issues.
3.2 PLANT PHYSIOLOGY
Unit 1: Cell Organelles and Water Relations
Cell organelles and their physiological functions Structure and physiological functions of cell wall, cell inclusions. Cell membrane structure and functions. Water and its role in plants, properties and functions of water in the cell, water relations, water potential of plant cells. Mechanism of water uptake by roots transport in roots, movement of water in plants, water loss from plants, energy balance, solar energy, input energy dissipation at crop canopy level. Evapotranspiration, plant factors influencing transpiration rate. Stomata, structure function - Mechanism of stomatal movement, antitranspirants. Physiology of water high temperature and salinity stress in plants. Influence of water stresses at cell, organ, plant and canopy levels. Indices for assessment of drought resistance.
Unit 2: Metabolic Processes and Growth Regulation
Energy and work, free energy and chemical potential, redox reactions and electrochemical potential. Enzyme classification and mechanism of action, factors affecting enzyme action. Gene expression and protein turnover. Photosynthesis, translocation and respiration as key processes regulating carbon metabolism and plant growth. Photosynthesis and bioproductivity. Photochemical process-Chloroplast, its structure, CAM plants and their significance. Rubisco structure and regulations, Photorespiration and its significance, CO2 fixation as a diffusive process, effect of environmental factors on photosynthetic rates. Synthesis of sucrose, starch, oligo and polysaccharides. Translocations of photosynthates and its importance in sink growth. Mitochondrial respiration, growth and maintenance respiration, cyanide resistant respiration and its significance. Nitrogen metabolism. Inorganic nitrogen species (N2, N03, NH3) and their reduction, protein synthesis, nucleic acids. Sulphate uptake and reduction. Lipid metabolism- storage, protective and structural lipids. Secondary metabolites and their significance in plant defence mechanism. Growth and differentiation, hormonal concept of growth and differentiation, plant growth hormones (auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, ABA, ethylene, etc.), biosynthesis of growth hormones and their metabolism, synthetic growth regulators, growth retardant, apical dominance, senescence, fruit growth, abscission, photo-morphogenesis, photo-receptors, phytochrome, physiology of flowering, photoperiodism and vernalisation.
Unit 3: Crop Productivity and Modelling
Role of crop physiology in agriculture, crop growth and productivity, crop growth models describing yield (Duncan/Passioura), phenology-crop productivity, growth factors related to biomass - concept of growth rates- canopy photosynthesis (leaf area and net assimilation rates as determining factors). Light interception as a major function of leaf area-index, LAD canopy architecture- Light extinction coefficient relative growth rate. Net assimilation rate. Biomass and yield relations. Assimilate partitioning, yield and yield structure analysis. Concept of source and sink, factors influencing source and sink size and productivity. Environmental factors determining crop growth. Light, temperature and VPD, effect of photoperiod and thermoperiod on duration of growth stages. Ideotype concept-selection- indices for improving crop productivity.
Unit 4: Abiotic Stress Responses in Plants
Abiotic stresses affecting plant productivity. Basic principles of a crop improvement programme under stress, interactions between biotic and abiotic stresses. Drought 21 characteristic features, water potential in the soil-plant-air continuum. Development of water deficits, energy balance concept, transpiration and it’s regulation – stomatal functions/VPD. Physiological process affected by drought. Drought resistance mechanisms: Escape, dehydration postponement (Drought avoidance), Dehydration tolerance, and characteristics of resurrection plants. Osmotic adjustment Osmoprotectants, stress proteins. Water use efficiency as a drought resistance trait. Molecular responses to water deficit stress perception, expression of regulatory and function genes and significance of gene products. Stress and hormones-ABA as a signaling molecule – Cytokinin as negative signal. Oxidative stress: reactive oxygen species (ROS) – role of scavenging systems (SOD, catalase etc.). High temperature stress: tolerance mechanisms- role of membrane lipids in high temperance tolerance. Functions of HSPs chilling stress; effects on physiological processes. Crucial role of membrane lipids. Salinity: species variation in salt tolerance. Salinity effects at cellular and whole plant level, tolerance mechanisms. Breeding for salt resistance. Heavy metal stress: aluminum and cadmium toxicity in acid soils. Role of phytochelatins (heavy, metal binding proteins).
Unit 5: Plant Growth Regulators and Plant Development
Plant growth regulators – Hormones, endogenous growth substances and synthetic chemicals. Endogenous growth regulating substances other than hormones. Brassinosteriods, triacontanol, phenols polyamines, jasmonates, concept of death hormone. Classification, site of synthesis, biosynthetic pathways and metabolism and influence on plant growth and development by auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, abscisic acid and ethylene. Concept of hormone action - hormone receptors and signal transduction Hormone mutants. Hormonal regulation of gene expressions at various developmental stages of plant-flowering, seed maturity, seed dormancy. Action of hormones on cellular functions: Auxins- cell elongation, retardation of abscission of plant parts, gibberellins – stem elongation, germination of dormant seeds, cytokinins-cell division, retardation of senescence. Abscisic acid- stomatal closure and induction of drought resistance, ethylene- fruit ripening, acceleration of senescence of leaves. Interaction of hormones in regulation of plant growth and development processes. Synthetic growth regulators, growth retardants, apical dominance, senescence, fruit growth, abscission. Growth and differentiation, hormonal concept of growth and differentiations. Rooting of cuttings- flowering- physiological and molecular aspects of control of reproductive growth. Apical dominance, senescence and abscission. Fruit growth and development, physiological and molecular aspects of ripening processes and improving post-harvest life of fruits. Induction and breaking dormancy in seeds and buds. Synthetic growth regulators. Practical utility in agriculture and horticulture. Herbicides, classification and their mode of action.
Unit 6: Mineral Nutrition
Importance of mineral nutrition in plant growth. Classification and essentiality criteria. General mechanisms - concept of apparent free space and nature of bio-membranes. Dual mechanism and other concepts of ion uptake. Short distance transport-pathway from external solution (Apoplasm) to sieve across the root cortical cells-factors contributing to xylem loading. Long distance transport in xylem and phloem, xylem unloading in leaf cells. Uptake and release of mineral nutrients by foliage. Rhizosphere and root biology, root growth, influence of micro-organism in nutrient acquisition, release and uptake by plant roots. Yield and mineral nutrition-concept of nutrient use efficiency, Mineral nutrition under adverse soil situations-drought, salinity, acidity etc. Heavy metal toxicity and concept of phytoremediation. Interaction of phytohormones and nutrients. Molecular aspects- uptake and transport, role of transporter genes, genetics of nutrient uptake, identification and transfer of genes for tolerance to nutrient deficiencies, etc. Soil less culture – Hydroponics - Role of Macro, Micro and beneficial nutrients- Identification of nutrient deficiencies and toxicities.
Unit 7: Climate and Climate Change
Climate- Analytical methods to determine long term changes in environment- Tree ring, cellulose, stable carbon isotope discrimination, stable 18O discrimination for hydrological changes. Likely changes in climate in future and its impact on crop and ecosystems. The greenhouse gases and global warning. CO2 as an important greenhouses gas, global carbon deposits, fluxes in the sinks and sources. Approaches to contain atmospheric CO2 level. Effect of elevated CO2 on plant growth and development. Methane as a greenhouse gas. Prediction on global warming, GCA models, effects on climate and biota. High temperature and CO2 interaction on plant growth and productivity, ionising radiation UV-B chlorofluoro carbon (CFC)– their impact on ozone layer- ozone hole and alteration in UV-B radiation. Effects of UV-B radiation on plant ecosystem, repair and acclimation to UV-B damage. Carotenoids and their role in membrane stabilization. Air pollution, SO2, NO, methane, ozone, peroxy acetyl nitrate and their effect on ecosystem. Industrial and domestic effluent-their effect, on aquatic ecosystem, plant growth and development.
Unit 8: Seed Physiology
Structure of seeds and their storage. Seed development patterns and source of assimilates for seed development. Pathway of movement of assimilates in developing grains of monocots and dicots. Chemical composition of seeds. Storage of carbohydrates, proteins and fats in seeds. Hydration of seeds. Physiological processes. Seed respiration, mitochondrial activity Mobilization of stored resource in seeds. Chemistry of oxidation of starch, proteins and fats. Utilization of breakdown products by embryonic axis. Control processes in mobilization of stored reserves. Role of embryonic axes. Gibberellin and ?-amylase and other hydrolytic activity. Seed maturation phase and desiccation damage, role of LEA proteins. Seed viability. Seed dormancy. Means to overcome seed dormancy.
Unit 9: Physiology of Flowering and Reproduction
Evolutionary history of flowering plants (angiosperms). Semelparous and iteroparous reproduction, monocarpic and perennial life etc. Flowering phenomenon, effect of plant age, juvenility- transition to flowering. Flowering nature and classification of plants. Photoperiodic responses and the mechanisms in short and long day plants. Theories related to flowering. Endogenous substances and flowering. Gene expression in flowering. Control of flowering. Thermoperiodism - photo and thermo-period interactions. Vernalization-mechanism. Photomorphogenesis, photoreceptors, phytochrome, cryptochrome, physiology of flowering, photoperiodism and vernalization. Optimization in flowering response-to environmental features (light, temperature, stress) etc. plant reproductive physiology. Mating strategy in plants, molecular techniques to understand mating patterns, self-incompatibility responses, physiological processes mediating fertilization (pollen-stigma interactions), seed and fruit development, seed and fruit abortion and means to overcome it. Molecular biology of seed development, physiological basis of cytoplasmic male sterility and fertility restoration. Physiology of heterosis.
Unit 10: Physiology of Horticultural and Plantation Crop Species
Growth and development of horticultural and plantation crop species. Juvenility, shoot growth, types of shoots, patterns of shoot growth, cambial growth and its regulation. Physiological aspects of pruning and dwarfing. Growth measurements. Water relations of tree species. Water uptake and transport. Concepts of transpiration rate and water use efficiency. Sexual and asexual propagation. Rootstock and scion interactions. Physiology of flowering in perennial species, photoperiodism and thermoperiodism. Physiological aspects of fruit crops: mango, banana, grapes, citrus, papaya and pineapple etc. Physiological aspects of plantation crops: tea, coffee, cardamom, coconut, and black pepper. Physiological constraints and remedial measures of horticultural and plantation crops.
Unit 11: Post-Harvest Physiology
Senescence and ageing in plants. Ethylene – the senescence hormone, leaf senescence. Monocarpic plant senescence. Biochemistry and molecular biology of flower senescence. Gene expression during senescence. Concept of physiological maturity of seeds - post harvest changes in biochemical constituents in field crops - loss of viability, loss of nutritive value, environmental factors influencing post-harvest deterioration of seeds. Physiological and biochemical changes during fruit ripening and storage. Senescence and post-harvest life of cut flowers. Physical, physiological and chemical control of post - harvest deterioration of fruits, vegetables and cut flowers and its significance during storage and transport. Molecular approach in regulation of fruit ripening. Transgenic technology for improvement of shelf-life. Edible vaccine.
Unit 12: Morphogenesis, Tissue Culture and Plant Transformation
Morphogenesis; the cellular basis of growth and morphogenesis; polarity in tip growing cells and diffusive growing cells. Control of cell division and differentiation, phyto-chromes, different forms, physiological effects and gene regulation, and cellular totipotency, physiology and biochemistry of differentiation, in organ cell, tissue and cultures, micropropagation strategies, application of tissue culture in agriculture, horticulture, forestry and industry: plant transformation; transformation vectors, concept of selectable and scorable markers. Agrobacterium mediated transformation, binary vectors, biolistics. Electroporation, selection of putative transgenic plants, genetic analysis. PCR, Southern analysis evaluation of transgenic plants.
3.3 AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY
Unit 1: Cell Structure and Function
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell architecture, Cell wall, plasma membrane, Structure and function of cell organelles: vacuoles, mitochondria, plastids, golgi apparatus, ER, peroxisomes, glyoxisomes. Cell division, regulation of cell cycle, Protein secretion and targeting, Cell division, growth and differentiation. Transport across cell membrane, Cell signaling, Developmental biology of plants, programmed cell death (apoptosis).
Unit 2: Biomolecules and Metabolism
Structure and function of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids, Synthesis of carbohydrate, glycolysis, HMP, Citric acid cycle and metabolic regulation, Oxidative phosphorylation and substrate level phosphorylation, Vitamins, plant and animal hormones. Functional molecules, antioxidants, nutrient precursor, HSPs, anti-viral compounds.
Unit 3: Enzymology
Enzymes, structure conformation, classification, assay, isolation, purification and characterization, catalytic specificity, mechanism of action, active site, regulation of enzyme activity, multienzyme complexes, immobilized enzymes and protein engineering, immobilized enzymes and their application.
Unit 4: Molecular Genetics
Concept of gene, Prokaryotes as genetic system, Prokaryotic and eukaryotic chromosomes, methods of gene isolation and identification, Split genes, overlapping genes and pseudo genes, Organization of prokaryotic and eukaryotic genes and genomes including operon, exon, intron, enhancer promoter sequences and other regulatory elements. Mutation – spontaneous, induced and site-directed, recombination in bacteria, fungi and viruses, transformation, transduction, conjugation, transposable elements and transposition.
Unit 5: Gene Expression
Expression of genetic information, operon concept, Transcription – mechanism of transcription in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, transcription unit, regulatory sequences and enhancers, activators, repressors, co-activators, Co-repressors in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, inducible genes and promoters, Transcription factors post transcriptional modification and protein transport, DNA-protein interaction, Genetic code. Mechanism of translation and its control, post translational modifications.
Unit 6: Molecular Biology Techniques
Isolation and purification of nucleic acids. Nucleic acids hybridization: Southern, northern and western blotting hybridization. Immune response monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies and ELISA, DNA sequencing. Construction and screening of genomic and C-DNA libraries. Gel electrophoretic techniques. Polymerase chain reactor spectroscopy, RT-PCR ultracentrifugation, chromatography, FISH, RIA, etc. Next generation genome sequencing techniques. reaction, reverse transcription PCR, real time PCR, ultracentrifugation, spectroscopy, microarray, etc.
Unit 7: Gene Cloning
Restriction enzymes and their uses. Salient features and uses of most commonly used vectors i.e. plasmids, bacteriophages, phagemids, cosmids, BACs, PACs and YACs, binary vectors, expression vectors. Gateway cloning vectors. Gene cloning and sub-cloning strategies, chromosome walking, genetic transformation, Basis of animal cloning. Biology. Risk assessment and IPR.
Unit 8: Molecular Biology
Ribosome structure and function. Protein biosynthesis in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Post-translational modification. Gene regulation, RNA processing and Post transcriptional modifications. Bioprospecting, biofortification, gene pyramiding and gene fusion, ribozyme technology. DNA chips and their use in transcriptome analysis; Mutants and RNAi in functional genomics; Proteomics, Metabolomics and ionomics.
Unit 9: Plant Molecular Biology
Photoregulation and phytochrome regulation of nuclear and chloroplastic gene expression. Molecular mechanism of nitrogen fixation. Molecular biology of various stresses, viz. abiotic stresses like drought, salt, heavy metals and temperature; and biotic stresses like bacterial, fungal and viral diseases. Signal transduction and its molecular basis, molecular mechanism of plant hormone action mitochondrial control of fertility, structure, organization and regulation of nuclear gene concerning storage proteins and starch synthesis. Crop genome sequencing projects.
Unit 10: Tissue Culture
Basic techniques in cell culture and somatic cell genetics. Regulation of cell cycle and cell division. Clonal propagation. Concept of cellular totipotency. Anther culture, somaclonal and gametoclonal variations. Hybrid embryo culture and embryo rescue, somatic hybridization and cybridization. Application of tissue culture in crop improvement. Secondary metabolite production. In vitro, mutagenesis, cryopreservation and plant tissue culture repository. Synthetic seeds, Virus indexing.
Unit 11: Plant Genetic Engineering
Isolation of genes of economic importance. Gene constructs for tissue-specific expression. Different methods of gene transfer to plants, viz. direct and vector-mediated. Molecular analysis of transformants. RNAi technology. molecular pharming, bioremediation. GM detection methods. Resistance management strategies for target traits. Potential applications of plant genetic engineering for crop improvement, i.e. insect-pest resistance (insect, viral, fungal and bacterial disease resistance), abiotic stress resistance, herbicide resistance, storage protein quality, increasing shelf-life, oil quality, Current status of transgenics, biosafety norms and controlled field trials and release of transgenics (GMOs).
Unit 12: Molecular Markers and Genomics
DNA molecular markers: Principles, type and applications; restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), randomly amplified polymorphic DNA sequences (RAPD), Simple sequence repeats (SSR), Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), Structural and functional genomics, gene mapping, genome mapping, gene tagging and comparative genomics and application of genomics. Development of mapping population, linkage mapping. association mapping, Phylogeography, conservation genetics.
3.4 AGRICULTURAL MICROBIOLOGY
Unit 1: History of Microbial World
History, development and scope of microbiology, evolution of microbial life. Theory of spontaneous generation. Prokaryotes, archaebacteria and eukaryotes. Techniques used in identification and classification of bacteria. Important groups of prokaryotes – photosynthetic bacteria, blue green algae, chemoautotrophic bacteria, spore forming bacteria, mycoplasma, viruses, bacteriophages and actinomycetes. Heterotrophic bacteria nitrobacteria, nitrogen-fixing bacteria and cyanobacteria, lactic acid bacteria, halophiles, thermophiles acidophiles and methanogens. Structure and classification of viruses, growth of viruses, lytic and lysogenic cycles, plant viruses, viroids.
Unit 2: Microbial Ecology and Physiology
Principles of microbial ecology, Microbiology of ecosystems - soil, rhizosphere, phyllosphere, water - fresh and marine, and air. Microbial interactions - symbiosis, synergism, commensalism, parasitism, amensalism, antagonism and predation, adoption of micro-organisms to various ecosystems. Microbial growth curve. Mathematical expression of growth -continuous and batch cultures. Diauxic and synchronous growth. Microbial nutrition. Bacterial metabolism - aerobic and anaerobic respiration, electron transport chain, microbial photosynthesis, oxidative and substrate level photo-phosphorylation. Biosynthesis of cell wall, protein breakdown by microbes.
Unit 3: Soil Microbiology
Soil microorganisms: major groups, decomposition of organic matter, soil health. Root exudates and rhizosphere effects. Manipulation of rhizosphere microflora in plant productivity. Microbial biomass. Nitrogen cycle: ammonification, nitrification and denitrification. Biological nitrogen fixation–symbiotic and asymbiotic. Biochemistry and genetics of nitrogen fixation. Microbial transformations of phosphorus, sulphur and minor nutrients. Role of bio-fertilizers in agriculture and forestry. Bioremediation of problem soils, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and their mode of action. Formation and composition of soil organic matter: fulvic acid and humic acid.
Unit 4: Environmental Microbiology and Basic Microbiological Techniques
Isolation and preservation of different types of microorganisms. Methods of sterilization and disinfection. Microscopy: Optical, phase contrast, fluorescent, dark field and electron. Microbial assay of vitamins, enzymes and antibiotics, Pollution of soil, water and air, Role of microorganisms in pollution, sources of pollution and their impact on environment, microbiology of sewage and industrial effluents and their safe disposal, management of solid and liquid organic wastes, composting, biogas, water purification, sewage treatment, water-borne diseases and effluent management.
Unit 5: Microbial Biotechnology
Industrial production of metabolites - organic acids, alcohols, antibiotics. Fermentor designs and types. Control of fermentation process - batch, feed batch and continuous. Downstream processing in fermentation industry. Production of single cell proteins and probiotics, hormones, biofertilizers, biopesticides. Phyto-remediation. Microbiology of raw and processed foods. Fermented food – vinegar, wine sauerkraut, pickles, cheese, yogurt. Food preservation, contamination and spoilage, food-borne illness and intoxication. Food as substrate for micro-organism, microflora of meat, fish, egg, fruits, vegetables, juices, flour, canned foods; bio- degrading microbes, single cell protein for use as food and feed, bioactive food / probiotics
[4.1 Vegetable Science/Olericulture, 4.2 Fruit Science/Pomology, 4.3 Floriculture & Landscaping/ Floriculture & Landscape Architecture, 4.4 Spices,
Plantation, Medicinal & Aromatic Plants, 4.5 Horticulture, 4.6 Post Harvest Technology (Horticulture)]
4.1 VEGETABLE SCIENCE/OLERICULTURE
Unit 1. Production Technology of Cool Season Vegetable Crops
Introduction, climatic and soil requirement, commercial varieties/hybrids, sowing/planting times and methods, seed rate and seed treatment, nutritional and irrigation requirements, intercultural operations, weed control, mulching, physiological disorders, harvesting, post-harvest management, plant protection measures and seed production of: potato, cole crops: cabbage, cauliflower, knol khol, sprouting broccoli, Brussels sprout, root crops: carrot, radish, turnip, and beetroot, bulb crops: onion and garlic, Peas and beans, leafy vegetables: palak, methi and coriander cool season vegetables.
Unit 2. Production Technology of Warm Season Vegetable Crops
Introduction, climatic and soil requirements, commercial varieties/hybrids, sowing/planting times and methods, seed rate and seed treatment, nutritional and irrigation requirements, intercultural operations, weed control, mulching, physiological disorders, harvesting, post-harvest management, plant protection measures, economics of crop production and seed production of: Tomato, eggplant, hot and sweet pepper, Okra, cowpea and cluster bean, Cucurbitaceous crops, and sweet potato, amaranths.
Unit 3. Breeding of Vegetable Crops
Origin, botany, taxonomy, cytogenetics, genetics, breeding objectives, breeding methods (introduction, selection, hybridization, mutation), varieties and varietal characterization, resistance breeding for biotic and abiotic stress, quality improvement, biotechnology and their use in breeding in vegetable crops - molecular marker, genomics, marker assisted selection and QTLs. Potato and tomato, Eggplant, hot pepper, sweet pepper and okra, Peas and beans, lettuce, gourds, melons, pumpkins and squashes, cabbage, cauliflower, carrot and radish.
Unit 4. Growth and Development
Cellular structures and their functions; definition of growth and development, growth analysis and its importance in vegetable production; Physiology of dormancy and germination of vegetable seeds, tubers and bulbs; Role of auxins, gibberellilns, cyktokinins and abscisic acid; Application of synthetic hormones, plant growth retardants and inhibitors for various purposes in vegetable crops; Role and mode of action of antitranspirants, anti-auxin, ripening retardant and plant stimulants in vegetable crop production; Role of light, temperature and photoperiod on growth, development of underground parts, flowering and sex expression in vegetable crops; apical dominance; Physiology of fruit set, fruit development, fruit growth, flower and fruit drop; parthenocarpy in vegetable crops; phototropism, ethylene inhibitors, senescence and abscission; fruit ripening and physiological changes associated with ripening; Plant growth regulators in relation to vegetable production; morphogenesis and tissue culture techniques in vegetable crops. sex expression in cucurbits and checking flower and fruit drops and improving fruit set in Solanaceous vegetables.
Unit 5. Seed Production
Introduction; modes of propagation in vegetables; Seed morphology and development in vegetable seeds; Floral biology of these plant species; classification of vegetable crops based on pollination and reproduction behavior; steps in quality seed production; identification of suitable areas/locations for seed production of these crops; Classification based on growth cycle and pollination behavior; methods of seed production; comparison between different methods e.g. pollination mechanisms; sex types, ratios and expression and modification of flowering pattern in cucurbits; nursery raising and transplanting stage; Seed production technology of vegetables viz. solanaceous, cucurbitaceous, leguminous, malvaceae, cole crops, leafy vegetables, root, tuber and bulb crops; harvesting/picking stage and seed extraction in fruit vegetables; clonal propagation and multiplication in tuber crops e.g. Potato and sweet potato, seed-plot technique in potato; hybrid seed production technology of vegetable crops, TPS (true potato seed) and its production technique; hybrids in vegetables; maintenance of parental lines; use of male sterility and self-incompatibility in hybrid seed production, importance and present status of vegetable industry.
Unit 6. Systematics of Vegetable Crops
Principles of classification; different methods of classification; salient features of international code of nomenclature of vegetable crops; Origin, history, evolution and distribution of vegetable crops, botanical description of families, genera and species covering various tropical, subtropical and temperate vegetables; Cytological level of various vegetable crops; descriptive keys for important vegetables; Importance of molecular markers in evolution of vegetable crops; molecular markers as an aid in characterization and taxonomy of vegetable crops.
Unit 7. Production Technology of Underexploited Vegetable Crops
Introduction, botany and taxonomy, climatic and soil requirements, commercial varieties/hybrids, planting time and method, seed rate and seed treatment, nutritional and irrigation requirements, intercultural operations, weed control, mulching, physiological disorders, harvesting, post-harvest management, plant protection measures and seed production of: Asparagus and leek; Brussels sprout, Chinese cabbage, broccoli and kale; Amaranth, celery, parsley, parsnip, lettuce, rhubarb, spinach, basella and bathu (chenopods); lima bean, winged bean, vegetable pigeon pea and sword bean; Sweet gourd, spine gourd, pointed gourd, little gourd (kundru).
Unit 8. Post-Harvest Technology of Vegetable Crops
Importance and scope of post-harvest management of vegetables; Maturity indices and standards for different vegetables; methods of maturity determinations; biochemistry of maturity and ripening, enzymatic and textural changes, ethylene evolution and ethylene management, respiration, transpiration, regulation methods; Harvesting tools, harvesting practices for specific market requirements; post-harvest physiological and biochemical changes, disorders-chilling injury in vegetables, influence of pre-harvest practices and other factors affecting post-harvest losses, packaging house operations, commodity pretreatments- chemicals, wax coating, prepackaging and irradiation; packaging of vegetables, post-harvest, diseases and prevention from infestation, principles of transport; Methods and practices of storage-ventilated, refrigerated, MA, CA storage, hypobaric storage, pre-cooling and cold storage, zero energy cool chamber; storage disorders.
Unit 9: Organic Vegetable Production Technology
Importance, principles, prospective, concept and component of organic production of vegetable crops, managing soil fertility, pest, disease and weed problem in organic farming system, crop rotation in organic vegetable production. Method of enhancing soil fertility, mulching, raising green manure crops, indigenous methods of compost, panchgavya, biodynamics preparation, ITKs organic farming. Role of botanicals and bio-control agents. GAP and GMP, opportunity and challenges in organic production of vegetables.
Unit 10: Hi-tech Production Technology of Vegetable Crops
Importance and scope of protected cultivation of vegetable crops, principles used in protected cultivation and greenhouse technology, effect of temperature, carbon dioxide, humidity; energy management, low cost structures, training methods, engineering effects, Use of plastics, structures including low cost poly-house/green houses and other structures in vegetable production. Drip and sprinkler irrigation, fertigation, shading, hydroponics and other production technologies for enhancing productivity and off-season of high value vegetable crops like tomato, capsicum and cucumber.
4.2 FRUIT SCIENCE/POMOLOGY
Unit 1. Tropical and Dry Land Fruit Production
Commercial varieties of regional, national and international importance, ecophysiological requirements, recent trends in propagation, rootstock influence, planting systems, cropping systems, root zone and canopy management, nutrient management, water management, fertigation, role of bio-regulators, abiotic factors limiting fruit production, physiology of flowering, pollination, fruit set and development, honeybees in cross pollination, physiological disorders – causes and remedies, quality improvement by management practices; maturity indices, harvesting, grading, packing, storage and ripening techniques; industrial and export potential, Agri. Export Zones (AEZ) and industrial supports.
Crops: Mango, banana, citrus, papaya, guava, sapota, jackfruit, pineapple, annonas, avocado, aonla, ber and minor fruits of tropics.
Unit 2. Subtropical and Temperate Fruit Production
Commercial varieties of regional, national and international importance, ecophysiological requirements, recent trends in propagation, rootstock influence, planting systems, cropping systems, root zone and canopy management, nutrient management, water management, fertigation, role of bioregulators, abiotic factors limiting fruit production, physiology of flowering, pollination, fruit set and development, honeybees in cross pollination, physiological disorders – causes and remedies, quality improvement by management practices; maturity indices, harvesting, grading, packing, storage and ripening techniques; industrial and export potential, Agri. Export Zones (AEZ) and industrial supports.
Crops: Apple, pear, quince, grapes, plums, peach, apricot, cherries, litchi, loquat, persimmon, kiwifruit, strawberry, walnut, almond, pistachio, hazelnut, mangosteen, carambola, bael, wood apple, fig, jamun, rambutan and pomegranate.
Unit 3. Biodiversity and Conservation
Biodiversity and conservation; issues and goals, centres of origin of cultivated fruits; primary and secondary centres of genetic diversity; present status of gene centres; exploration and collection of germplasm; conservation of genetic resources – conservation in situ and ex situ. Germplasm conservation – problem of recalcitrancy – cold storage of scions, tissue culture, cryopreservation, pollen and seed storage; inventory of germplasm, introduction of germplasm, plant quarantine; intellectual property rights, regulatory horticulture. Detection of genetic constitution of germplasm and maintenance of core group; GIS and documentation of local biodiversity, geographical indication.
Crops: Mango, sapota, citrus, guava, banana, papaya, grapes, jackfruit, custard apple, ber, aonla, Malus & Prunus sp., litchi and nuts.
Unit 4. Canopy Management in Fruit Crops
Canopy management – importance and advantages; factors affecting canopy development; Canopy types and structures with special emphasis on geometry of planting, canopy manipulation for optimum utilization of light. Light interception and distribution in different types of tree canopies; Spacing and utilization of land area – canopy classification; Canopy management through rootstock and scion; Canopy management through plant growth inhibitors, training and pruning and management practices; Canopy development and management in relation to growth, flowering, fruiting and fruit quality in temperate fruits, grapes, mango, sapota, guava, citrus and ber.
Unit 5. Breeding of Fruit Crops
Origin and distribution, taxonomical status – species and cultivars, cytogenetics, genetic resources, blossom biology, breeding systems, breeding objectives, ideotypes, approaches for crop improvement – introduction, selection, hybridization, mutation breeding, polyploid breeding, rootstock breeding, improvement of quality traits, resistance breeding for biotic and abiotic stresses, biotechnological interventions, achievements and future thrust in the following selected fruit crops.
Crops: Mango, banana, pineapple, citrus, grapes, guava, sapota, jackfruit, papaya, custard apple, aonla, avocado, ber, litchi, jamun, phalsa, mulberry, raspberry, apple, pear, plums, peach, apricot, cherries and strawberry.
Unit 6. Post-Harvest Technology
Maturity indices, harvesting practices and grading for specific market requirements, influence of pre-harvest practices, enzymatic and textural changes, respiration, transpiration; Physiology and biochemistry of fruit ripening, ethylene evolution and ethylene management, factors leading to post-harvest loss, pre-cooling; Treatment prior to shipment, viz., chlorination, waxing, chemicals, bio-control agents and natural plant products, fungicides, hot water, vapour heat treatment, sulphur fumigation and irradiation. Methods of storage – ventilated, refrigerated, MAS, CA storage, physical injuries and disorders; Packing methods and transport, quality evaluation, principles and methods of preservation, food processing, canning, fruit juices, beverages, pickles, jam, jellies, candies; Dried and dehydrated products, nutritionally enriched products, fermented fruit beverages, packaging technology, processing waste management, food safety standards.
Unit 7. Growth and Development
Definition, parameters of growth and development, growth dynamics, morphogenesis; Annual, semi-perennial and perennial horticultural crops, environmental impact on growth and development, effect of light, photosynthesis and photoperiodism, vernalisation, effect of temperature, heat units, thermoperiodism; Assimilate partitioning during growth and development, influence of water and mineral nutrition during growth and development, biosynthesis of auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, abscisic acid, ethylene, brassinosteroids, growth inhibitors, morphactins, role of plant growth promoters and inhibitors, developmental physiology and biochemistry during dormancy, bud break, juvenility, vegetative to reproductive interphase, flowering, pollination, fertilization and fruit set, fruit drop, fruit growth, ripening and seed development; Growth and developmental process during stress – manipulation of growth and development, impact of pruning and training, chemical manipulations in horticultural crops, molecular and genetic approaches in plant growth development.
Unit 8. Biotechnology of Fruit Crops
Harnessing bio-technology in horticultural crops, influence of plant materials, physical, chemical factors and growth regulators on growth and development of plant cell, tissue and organ culture; Callus culture – types, cell division, differentiation, morphogenesis, organogenesis, embryogenesis; Use of bioreactors and in vitro methods for production of secondary metabolites, suspension culture, nutrition of tissues and cells, regeneration of tissues, ex vitro, establishment of tissue cultured plants; Physiology of hardening – hardening and field transfer, organ culture – meristem, embryo, anther, ovule culture, embryo rescue, somaclonal variation, protoplast culture and fusion; Construction and identification of somatic hybrids and cybrids, wide hybridization, in vitro pollination and fertilization, haploids, in vitro mutation, artificial seeds, cryopreservation, rapid clonal propagation, genetic engineering and transformation in horticulture crops, use of molecular markers. In vitro selection for biotic and abiotic stress, achievements of biotechnology in horticultural crops.
Unit 9. Protected Fruit Culture
Greenhouse – world scenario, Indian situation; present and future, different agro-climatic zones in India, environmental factors and their effects on plant growth; Basics of greenhouse design, different types of structures – glasshouse, shade net, poly tunnels – Design and development of low cost greenhouse structures; Interaction of light, temperature, humidity, CO2, water on crop regulation – Greenhouse heating, cooling, ventilation and shading; Types of ventilation – Forced cooling techniques – Glazing materials – Micro irrigation and Fertigation; Automated greenhouses, microcontrollers, waste water recycling, management of pest and diseases - IPM.
Unit 10. Principles and Practices of Plant Propagation
Introduction, life cycle in plants, cellular basis for propagation. Sexual propagation – apomixis, polyembryony, chimeras. Factors influencing seed germination, hormonal regulation of germination and seedling growth. Seed quality, treatment, packing, storage, certification and testing. Rooting of cuttings under mist and hot beds. Physiological, anatomical and biochemical aspects of root induction in cuttings. Selection of elite mother plants. Establishment of bud wood bank. Stock, scion and interstock relationship and incompatibility. Physiology of dwarfing rootstocks. Rejuvenation, progeny orchard and scion bank. Micropropagation ---- in vitro clonal propagation, direct organogenesis, embryogenesis, micrografting and meristem culture. Hardening, packing and transport of micro-propagules.
4.3 FLORICULTURE & LANDSCAPING/FLORICULTURE & LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE
Unit 1. Breeding
Principles – Evolution of varieties, origin, distribution, genetic resources, genetic divergence. Patents and Plant Variety Protection in India; Genetic inheritance of flower colour, doubleness, flower size, fragrance, post-harvest life; Breeding methods suitable for sexually and asexually propagated flower crops and ornamental plants – introduction, selection, domestication, polyploidy and mutation breeding for varietal development, Role of heterosis, Production of hybrids, Male sterility, incompatibility problems, seed production of flower crops; Breeding constrains and achievements made in commercial flowers – rose, jasmine, chrysanthemum, marigold, tuberose, crossandra, carnation, dahlia, gerbera, gladioli, orchids, anthurium, aster, heliconia, liliums, Breeding constrains and achievements made in ornamental plants – petunia, hibiscus, bougainvillea, Flowering annuals (zinnia, cosmos, dianthus, snap dragon, pansy) and ornamental foliages – Introduction and selection of plants for waterscaping and xeriscaping.
Unit 2. Production Technology of Cut Flowers
Scope of cut flowers in global trade, Global Scenario of cut flower production, Varietal wealth and diversity, area under cut flowers and production problems in India – Patent rights, nursery management, media for nursery, special nursery practices; Growing environment, open cultivation, protected cultivation, soil requirements, artificial growing media, soil decontamination techniques, planting methods, influence of environmental parameters, light, temperature, moisture, humidity and CO2 on growth and flowering; Flower production – water and nutrient management, fustigation, weed management, rationing, training and pruning, disbudding, special horticultural practices, use of growth regulators, physiological disorders and remedies, IPM and IDM, production for exhibition purposes; Flower forcing and year round flowering through physiological interventions, chemical regulation, environmental manipulation; Cut flower standards and grades, harvest indices, harvesting techniques, post-harvest handling, Pre-cooling, pulsing, packing, Storage and transportation, marketing, export potential, institutional support, Agril. Export Zones; Crops: Cut rose, cut chrysanthemum, carnation, gerbera, gladioli, tuberose, orchids, anthurium, aster, lilies, bird of paradise, heliconia, alstroemeria, alpinia, ornamental ginger, bromediads, dahlia, gypsophilla, limonium, statice, stock, cut foliage.
Unit 3. Production Technology for Loose Flowers
Scope of loose flower trade, Significance in the domestic market/export, Varietal wealth and diversity, propagation, sexual and asexual propagation methods, propagation in mist chambers, nursery management, pro-tray nursery under shadenets, transplanting techniques; Soil and climate requirements, field preparation, systems of planting, precision farming techniques; Water and nutrient management, weed management, training and pruning, pinching and disbudding, special horticultural practices, use of growth regulators, physiological disorders and remedies, IPM and IDM; Flower forcing and year round flowering production for special occasions through physiological interventions, chemical regulation; Harvest indices, harvesting techniques, post-harvest handling and grading, packing and storage, value addition, concrete and essential oil extraction, transportation and marketing, export potential, institutional support, Agril. Export Zones; Crops – Jasmine, scented rose, chrysanthemum, marigold, tuberose, crossandra, nerium, hibiscus, barleria, celosia, gomphrena, non-traditional flowers (Nyctanthes, Tabernaemontana, ixora, lotus, lilies, tecoma, pandanus).
Unit 4. Landscaping
Landscape designs, Styles of garden, formal, informal and free style gardens, types of gardens, English, Mughal, Japanese, Persian, Spanish, Italian, Vanas, Buddha garden; Urban landscaping, Landscaping for specific situations, institutions, industries, residents, hospitals, roadsides, traffic islands, damsites, IT parks, corporates; Garden plant components, arboretum, shrubbery, fernery, palmatum, arches and pergolas, edges and hedges, climbers and creepers, cacti and succulents, herbs, annuals, flower borders and beds, ground covers, carpet beds, bamboo groves; Production technology for selected ornamental plants; Lawns, Establishment and maintenance, special types of gardens, vertical garden, roof garden, bog garden, sunken garden, rock garden, clock garden, colour wheels, temple garden, sacred groves; Bio-aesthetic planning, eco-tourism, theme parks, indoor gardening, therapeutic gardening, non-plant components, water scaping, xeriscaping, hardscaping.
Unit 5. Protected Floriculture
Prospects of protected floriculture in India; Types of protected structures – Greenhouses, polyhouses, shade houses, rain shelters etc., Designing and erection of protected structures; Low cost/Medium cost/High cost structures – economics of cultivation; Location specific designs; Structural components; Suitable flower crops for protected cultivation; Environment control – management and manipulation of temperature, light, humidity, air and CO2; Heating and cooling systems, ventilation, naturally ventilated greenhouses, fan and pad cooled greenhouses, light regulation; Containers and substrates, soil decontamination, layout of drip and fertigation system, water and nutrient management, weed management, physiological disorders, IPM and IDM; Crop regulation by chemical methods and special horticultural practices (pinching, disbudding, deshooting, deblossoming, etc.), Staking and netting, Photoperiod regulation; Harvest indices, harvesting techniques, post-harvest handling techniques, Pre-cooling, sorting, grading, packing, storage, quality standards.
Unit 6. Value Addition
Prospects of value addition, National and global scenario, production and exports, Women empowerment through value added products making, supply chain management; Types of value added products, value addition in loose flowers, garlands, veni, floats, floral decorations, value addition in cut flowers, flower arrangement, styles, ikebana, morebana, free style, bouquets, button-holes, flower baskets, corsages, floral wreaths, garlands, etc.; Selection of containers and accessories for floral products and decorations; Dry flowers – Identification and selection of flowers and plant parts; Raw material procurement, preservation and storage; Techniques in dry flower making – Drying, bleaching, dyeing, embedding, pressing; Accessories; Designing and arrangement – dry flower baskets, bouquets, pot-pourri, wall hangings, button holes, greeting cards, wreaths; Packing and storage; Concrete and essential oils; Selection of species and varieties (including non-conventional species), extraction methods, Packing and storage, Selection of species and varieties, Types of pigments, carotenoids, anthocyanin, chlorophyll, betalains; Significance of natural pigments, Extraction methods; Applications.
Unit 7. Turfing and Turf Management
Prospects of landscape industry, History of landscape gardening, site selection, basic requirements, site evaluation, concepts of physical, chemical and biological properties of soil pertaining to turf grass establishment; Turf grasses – Types, species, varieties, hybrids; Selection of grasses for different locations; Grouping according to climatic r3equirement – Adaptation; Turfing for roof gardens; Preparatory operations; Growing media used for turf grasses – Turf establishment methods, seeding, sprigging/dibbling, plugging, sodding/turfing, turf plastering, hydro-seeding, astro-turfing; Turf management – Irrigation, nutrition, special practices, aerating, rolling, soil top dressing, use of turf growth regulators (TGRs) and micronutrients, Turf mowing – mowing equipments, techniques to minimize wear and compaction, weed control, biotic and abiotic stress management in turfs; Establishment and maintenance of turfs for playgrounds, viz. golf, football, hockey, cricket, tennis, rugby, etc.
Unit 8. Computer Aided Designing (CAD) for Outdoor and Indoorscaping
Exposure to CAD (Computer Aided Designing) – Applications of CAD in landscape garden designing, 2D drawing by AUTOCAD, 3D drawing by ARCHICAD, Creating legends for plant and non-plant components, Basics of Photoshop software in garden designing; 2D drawing methods, AUTOCAD Basics, Coordinate systems in AUTOCAD LOT 2007, Point picking methods, Toolbars and Icons, File handling functions, Modifying tools, Modifying comments, Isometric drawings, Drafting objects; Using patterns in AUTOCAD drawing, Dimension concepts, Hyperlinking, Script making, Using productivity tools, e-transmit file, making sample drawing for outdoor and indoor garden by AUTOCAD 2D Drawing techniques, Drawing web format design, Making layout; 3D drawing methods, ARCHICAD file system, Tools and Infobox, modification tools, structural elements, GDL objects (Grid Dimensional Linking), Creation of garden components through ARCHICAD; ARCHICAD organization tools, Dimensioning and detailing of designs, Attribute settings of components, Visualization tools for landscape preview, data management, plotting and accessories for designing, inserting picture using Photoshop, Making sample drawing for outdoor and indoor gardens.
4.4 SPICES, PLANTATION, MEDICINAL & AROMATIC PLANTS
Unit 1. Production of Plantation Crops
Role of plantation crops in national economy, export potential, IPR issues, clean development mechanism, classification and varietal wealth. Plant multiplication including in vitro multiplication, systems of cultivation, multitier cropping, photosynthetic efficiencies of crops at different tiers, rainfall, humidity, temperature, light and soil pH on crop growth and productivity, high density planting, nutritional requirements, physiological disorders, role of growth regulators and macro and micro nutrients, water requirements, fertigation, moisture conservation, shade regulation, weed management, training and pruning, crop regulation, maturity indices, harvesting. Post-harvest processing practices. GAP and GMP in plantation crop production and processing. Cost benefit analysis, organic farming, management of drought, precision farming. Crops: Coffee and tea, Cashew and cocoa, Rubber, palmyrah and oil palm, Coconut and arecanut, Wattle and betel vine. Role of commodity boards and developmental institutions in plantation crops.
Unit 2. Production Technology of Spice Crops
Introduction, importance of spice crops-historical accent, present status - national and international, future prospects, botany and taxonomy, climatic and soil requirements, commercial varieties/hybrids, site selection, layout, sowing/planting times and methods, seed rate and seed treatment, nutritional and irrigation requirements, intercropping, mixed cropping, intercultural operations, weed control, mulching, physiological disorders, harvesting, post-harvest management and processing practices, plant protection measures and seed planting material and micro-propagation, precision farming, organic resource management, organic certification, quality control, pharmaceutical significance and protected cultivation of: Black pepper, cardamom, Clove, cinnamon and nutmeg, allspice, Turmeric, ginger and garlic, Coriander, fenugreek, cumin, fennel, ajwain, dill, celery, Tamarind, garcinia and vanilla. Role of commodity boards in spices development.
Unit 3. Production Technology of Medicinal and Aromatic Crops
Herbal industry, WTO scenario, Export and import status, Indian system of medicine, Indigenous Traditional Knowledge, IPR issues, Classification of medicinal crops, Systems of cultivation, Organic production, Role of institutions and NGO’s in production, GAP in medicinal crop production. Production technology, Post-harvest handling – Drying, Processing, Grading, Packing and Storage, processing and value addition; GMP and Quality standards in herbal products. Influence of biotic and abiotic factors on the production of secondary metabolites, Regulations for herbal raw materials, Phytochemical extraction techniques. Aromatic industry, WTO scenario, Export and import status, Indian perfumery industry, History, Advancements in perfume industry. Production technology, Post-harvest handling, Distillation methods, advanced methods, Solvent extraction process, TLC, HPLC, GC, steam distillation, Perfumes from non-traditional plants, Quality analysis, Value addition, Aroma chemicals, quality standards and regulations. Institutional support and international promotion of essential oil and perfumery products. Medicinal crops: Senna, Periwinkle, Coleus, Aswagandha, Glory lily, Sarpagandha, Dioscorea sp., Aloe vera, Phyllanthus amarus, Andrographis paniculata. Medicinal solanum Isabgol, Poppy, Safed musli, Stevia rebaudiana, Mucuna pruriens, Satavari, Mulhati, Asaphoetida, Nux vomica and Rosadle. Aromatic Crops: Palmarosa, lemongrass, citronella, vettiver, geranium, artemisia, Mentha, Ocimum, eucalyptus, rosemary, thyme, patchouli, lavender, marjoram, oreganum.
Unit 4. Breeding of Plantation, Spice, Medicinal and Aromatic Crops
Species and cultivars, cytogenetics, survey, collection, conservation and evaluation, blossom biology, breeding objectives, approaches for crop improvement, introduction, selection, hybridization, mutation breeding, polyploid breeding, improvement of quality traits, resistance breeding for biotic and abiotic stresses, molecular aided breeding and biotechnological approaches, marker-assisted selection, bioinformatics, IPR issues, achievements and future thrusts. Crops: Coffee and tea, Cashew and cocoa, Rubber, palmyrah and oil palm, Coconut and arecanut, Black pepper and cardamom, Ginger and turmeric, Fenugreek, coriander, fennel, celery and ajwain, Nutmeg, cinnamon, clove and allspice. Role of commodity boards and developmental institutions in plantation crops.
Medicinal crops, viz. Cassia angustifolia, Catharanthus roseus, Gloriosa superba, Coleus forskohlii, Stevia, Withania somnifera, Papaver omniferum, Plantago ovata, Dioscorea sp, Chlorophytum sp, Rauvolfia serpentina, Aloe vera, Phyllanthus amarus, Medicinal Solanum
Aromatic crops: Geranium, vettiver, Lemon grass, Palmarosa, citronella, rosemary, Patchouli, Eucalyptus, Artemisia, Ocimum sp, and Mint.
Unit 5. Processing of Plantation Crops, Spices, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants
Commercial uses of spices and plantation crops. Processing of major spices - cardamom, black pepper, ginger, turmeric, chilli and paprika, vanilla, cinnamon, clove, nutmeg, allspice, coriander, fenugreek, curry leaf. Extraction of oleoresin and essential oils; Processing of produce from plantation crops, viz. coconut, arecanut, cashewnut, oil palm, palmyrah, date palm, cocoa, tea, coffee, rubber etc; Processing of medicinal plants– dioscorea, gloriosa, stevia, coleus, ashwagandha, tulsi, isabgol, safed musli, senna, aloe, catharanthus, etc. Different methods of drying and storage. Microbial contamination of stored product. Influence of temperature and time combination on active principles; Extraction and analysis of active principles using TLC/HPLC/GC. Distillation, solvent extraction from aromatic plants– davana, mint, rosemary, rose, citronella, lavender, jasmine, etc. Study of aroma compounds and value addition. Nano-processing technology in medicinal and aromatic plants.
Unit 6. Organic Spice and Plantation Crop Production Technology
Importance, principles, perspective, concept and component of organic production of spice and plantation crops; organic production of spice crops and plantation crops, viz. Pepper, cardamom, turmeric, ginger, cumin, vanilla, coconut, coffee, cocoa, tea, arecanut; managing soil fertility, pests and diseases and weed problems in organic farming system; crop rotation in organic horticulture; processing and quality control for organic foods; methods for enhancing soil fertility, mulching, raising green manure crops. Indigenous methods of compost, panchagavya, biodynamics, preparation etc.; pest and disease management in organic farming; ITK’s in organic farming. Role of botanicals and bio-control agents; GAP and GMP- certification of organic products; organic production and export - opportunity and challenges.
4.5 HORTICULTURE & 4.6 POST HARVEST TECHNOLOGY (HORTICULTURE)
Same as covered under 4.1 to 4.4 above
05. VETERINARY AND ANIMAL SCIENCES-I
(5.1 Animal Genetics & Breeding, 5.2 Animal Nutrition, 5.3 Livestock Production Management,
5.4 Livestock Products Technology, 5.5 Poultry Science, 5.6 Veterinary Physiology)
5.1 ANIMAL GENETICS & BREEDING
Unit 1 : Overview of Genetics
History and development of genetics. Classic researches and pioneer scientists in genetics. Mendalism and its deviations. Chromosomes and heredity. Sex in relation to chromosomes and genes. Linkage and crossing over. Artificial transmutation of genes. Penetrance and expressivity. Multiple factor inheritance. Gene modifiers. Non-chromosomal genes and their inheritance, Chromosomal aberrations. Mosaicism and chimerism.
Unit 2 : Advanced Genetics
Fine structure of chromosomes and chromosomal banding. Gene and mechanism of gene action. DNA replication. Central dogma. Protein synthesis. Genetic code and DNA cloning. Recombinant DNA technology. PCR. Gene banks. Split gene. Genetic control of hormone coordination, metabolism and metabolic diseases. Use of biotechnological tools in improving animal productivity. Application of immunogenetics. Biochemical polymorphism. Chromosomal studies in livestock improvement programmes. Development of clones in relation to animal productivity and maintaining biodiversity. Production of transgenic animals. Gene mixing for useful functions.
Unit 3 : Overview of Breeding
Brief history of domestication of livestock. Important breeds of livestock & poultry with special reference to economic characters. Evolution of genetic systems. Isolating mechanisms and origin of species / sub-species, their adaptation. Mating systems for different livestock and poultry. Genetic and phenotypic consequences and applications of inbreeding and out-breeding. Genetic basis of heterosis and its use. Diallele and polyallele crossing. Reciprocal and reciprocal-recurrent-selection. Combining ability. Developments in population and production of livestock and poultry in India. Status of Animal Genetic Resources in India.
Unit 4 : Genetic Properties of Population
Population Vs individual. Inheritance and continuity of population. Effective population size. Biodiversity. Description of animal population. Value and means; Average effect of gene and gene substitution. Components of total phenotypic variance of a population. Resemblances between relatives. Concept of heritability, repeatability; & phenotypic, genetic and environmental correlations. Methods of estimation, uses, possible biases and precision of estimates.
Unit 5 : Population Genetics
Gene and genotypic frequencies and factors affecting them. Hardy Weinberg Law and consequences of it. Prediction of selection response by different methods. Selection for threshold characters. Indirect selection and correlated response. Theoretical basis of change of population mean and variance on inbreeding and cross breeding. Genotype – environment interaction. Metric characters under natural selection. Quantitative trait loci and their applications. Marker-assisted selection.
Unit 6 : Genetic Strategies
Purpose-wise breeding strategies for livestock and poultry under different agro-climatic zones of India. Evaluation of past genetic improvement programmes for livestock and poultry in India. Bottlenecks in implementation of livestock breeding programmes in India. Evaluation and characterization of various indigenous breeds of livestock and poultry. Ex-situ and In-situ conservation of animal and poultry genetic resources. Development of new breeds / strains for better productivity in animals. Open nucleus breeding system in livestock improvement in India. Bio-technology and its role in improving animals and poultry production. Role of artificial insemination / frozen semen / embryo transfer / ONBS / MOET technology in animal breeding.
Formulation of breeding programmes : Purpose-wise, breed-wise, region-wise for different species of livestock and poultry. Programmes for genetic improvement of non-descript livestock population of different species. Evaluation and current recommendations of cross breeding programmes of cattle, sheep and goat in India.
Unit 7 : Selection & Selection Experiments
Basis and methods of selection. Construction of selection indices. Different methods of sire evaluation. Selection differential and intensity of selection. Prediction of response. Improvement of response. Effect of selection on variance. Realised heritability. Long-term and short-term objectives of selections. Selection experiments in livestock and poultry. Role of control population in selection experiments. Selection for disease resistance and development of general and specific disease resistant strains / breeds. Purpose based selection and breeding of domestic animals and poultry. Genetic-slippage. Estimation of genetic divergence and its implications in livestock improvement programmes. Selection for better feed conversion efficiency in meat animals and poultry.
Unit 8 : Genetic Laboratory Techniques
Culturing Drosophila stock. Study of Drosophila with markers. Gene sequencing. Blood group typing. Karyotyping and chromosomal mapping. Concept of recombinant DNA techniques cloning and gene mapping. Nucleic acid hybridization. Development of breed descriptors at molecular level for different livestock and poultry breeds. Biochemical polymorphism analyses – blood groups, transferrins, milk proteins. Collection and storage of samples for DNA fingerprinting; isolation and quantification of DNA from blood and semen; Restricted enzyme digestion of genome DNA, Analysis and transfer of DNA from agarose electrophoresis; Nucleic acid hybridization; Analysis of DNA fingerprinting, PCR-RFLP assay. Cryogenic preservation of animal germplasm.
Unit 9 : Research Techniques for Quantitative Animal Genetics
Use of computers in handling animal breeding data. Estimation of variances and covariances. Development of statistical models for analyses of breed data and to quantify environmental variance. Estimation of inbreeding and relationship. Estimation of inbreeding rate in a closed herd / flock. Estimation and interpretation of genetic and phenotypic parameters. Development of efficient selection programmes and procedures. Estimation of genetic gains. Designing and evaluation of breeding strategies like reciprocal recurrent selection, diallele and polyallele crossing. Designing field based progeny testing programmes. Development of efficient methods and traits for genetic evaluation of males under indigenous conditions. Data bank concept.
Unit 10 : Laboratory Animal Breeding
Laboratory animal species viz mice, rat, guinea pig, rabbit, dog and monkey – Their chromosome numbers – genome size – major genes. Physiological, nutritional, reproduction parameters, maintenance protocol – pedigree recording, planned mating. Selection and Mating methods /systems- monogamous, polygamous and others. Genetic control and monitoring-Record keeping-Ethics and legislation for management and use of laboratory animals. Nomenclature for different strains, inbred lines (SPF line, Knockout mice, etc.) – Animal model for human disease. Specific utility of different laboratory species for different requirements.
5.2 ANIMAL NUTRITION
Unit 1: Energy and Proteins
Nutritional significance of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. Cell-wall fractionation. Available energy from organic nutrients. Partitioning of dietary energy. Basal metabolic rate. Energy retention. Factors affecting energy utilization. Direct and indirect calorimetry. Dietary lipids - their digestion, absorption and metabolism. Essential fatty acids. Effect of dietary fat on milk and body composition. Proteins - digestion, absorption and utilization. Comparative efficiency of amino acids as energy source. Essential and critical amino acids. Protein evaluation. Metabolizable protein concept. Protein energy inter-relationship. Energetic of protein utilization for maintenance and different productive functions.
Unit 2: Minerals, Vitamins and Feed Additives
Minerals: Classification of minerals, Physiological functions, Deficiency symptoms and toxicity - Inter-relationships - Synergism and antagonism - Requirements - Different sources and bio-availability - Role of chelated minerals. Vitamins: Physiological functions and co-enzyme role - Deficiency symptoms, hyper-vitaminosis. Requirements, Sources and vitamin analogues - Antivitamins – Feed Additives: Nutritional role. Prebiotics - Probiotics, phytochemicals other metabolic modifiers. Role of phyto-chemicals as growth promoters.
Unit 3: Rumen Eco-system and Functions
Rumen and its environment. Development of functional rumen. Digestion kinetics in reticulo-rumen. Role of rumen microbes, Significance of rumen fungi- Defaunation and transfaunation. Microbial fermentation in rumen. VFA production, inter-conversion and utilization. Dietary protein breakdown. Microbial protein synthesis. NPN compounds and their utilization. Ammonia toxicity - Role of slow release urea compounds. Manipulation of rumen fermentation. Bio-hydrogenation and utilization of dietary lipids. Methanogenesis and methane inhibitors.
Unit 4: Non-ruminant Nutrition
Comparative gastrointestinal physiology of monogastrics – digestion and metabolism of organic nutrients in poultry and swine. Significance of minerals and vitamins in mono-gastrics. Inter relationship in nutrient sparing activity. Feeding systems. Role of feed additives - Factors affecting nutritional quality and performance. Special nutritional needs of rabbits, horses and companion animals.
Unit 5: Nutrient Requirements
Energy protein requirements for maintenance and productivity in ruminants and non-ruminants. Colostrum feeding of calf, mineral and vitamin requirements. Dry matter intake in relation to productivity. DM: water intake ratio. Palatability. Nutritional intake and energy density. Feeding standards - NRC, ARC, Kearl and Indian. Nutrient requirements under temperate and tropical environment. Feeding strategies during stress and natural calamities - Ration formulation - least cost rations.
Unit 6: Forage Conservation and Evaluation
Natural and cultivated forges-Their composition and nutritive values. Nutritive value Index. Forage quality evaluation in range animals -Role of indicator methods-Advances in silage and haymaking- Factors affecting quality of conserved forages- Quality criteria and grading of silage and hay under tropics-artificial drying of forages.
Unit 7: Feed Processing and Technology
Methods of feed processing - physical, chemical and biological effect of processing on nutritional quality and utilization. Pelleted and extruded feeds. Quality control of raw feedstuffs and finished feeds: Significance of BIS (standards). Handling and storage of raw and finished feeds. Methods to improve shelf life of fat rich feeds, By-products of newly introduced commercial crops including residues of genetically modified feeds. Alternative feed resources. Current approaches in enriching tropical feed resources - concept of total mixed ration and advances in complete diet formulation.
Unit 8: Anti-metabolites and Toxic Principles
Naturally occurring anti-nutritional factors and common toxins in feeds and forages. Methods of detoxification. Health hazards due to residual pesticides in feeds and forages - Environmental pollutants.
Unit 9: Elements of Research Methodology
Principles of animal experimentation - Experimental designs in nutritional research. Modern methods of feed evaluation – In vitro, gas production and nylon bag techniques, Rumen simulation techniques -Rusitec Tracer techniques in nutrition research - Role of NIR Spectroscopy - Feed microscopy in quality evaluation of feedstuffs.
Unit 10: Clinical Nutrition
Role of nutrition to control digestive and metabolic disorders (milk fever, ketosis, ruminal acidosis-laminitis, bloat), metabolic profile tests. Role of nutrition in immunity, nutrition and reproduction, nutrients as antioxidants. Role of nutrition in management of GI parasites
5.3 LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT
Unit 1: General
Present status and future prospects of livestock and poultry development in India. Animal production systems in different agro-climatic zones of the country. Sustainability issue in relation to environment. Livestock farming systems. Effect of mechanization of agriculture on livestock sector. Breeds of cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat, pigs, equine, camels, rabbits and poultry. Various livestock and poultry development programmes & their impact on productivity & health. Livestock behaviour vis-à-vis adaptation and production. Behaviour & welfare. Systems of behaviour. Sexual behaviour in various species of livestock and poultry. Social order in farm animals. Behavioural aberrations – causes and control. Adaptation of livestock and poultry in tropics, deserts cold and high altitudes. Biosecurity and environmental considerations. Emerging challenges for livestock production in relation to the climate change scenario. Biotechnology in animal improvement.
Unit 2: Breeding Management
Basic principles of inheritance. Concept of heritability, repeatability and selection. Important methods of selection and systems of breeding in farm animals and birds. Importance of maintaining breeding records and their scientific interpretation.
Unit 3: Feeding Management
Nutrients and their functions. Nutritional requirements and feeding managements of different categories of livestock and poultry. Feed additives including antibiotic and probiotic feeding in farm animals and birds. Formulation and compounding of rations for various categories of livestock and poultry. Least cost ration formulation. Systems of feeding livestock and birds. Feeding standards for livestock and poultry. Feed conversion efficiency of various categories of livestock and poultry. Processing and storage of conventional and non-conventional feed ingredients. Agro-industrial by-products in animal feeds.
Unit 4: Reproduction Management
Reproductive systems of farm animals and birds. Climate and nutrition affecting reproductive performance in farm animals. Importance of early pregnancy diagnosis. Methods of heat detection. Artificial insemination. Oestrous prediction and synchronization. Causes of disturbed fertility and its prevention in farm animals. Management factors affecting reproductive efficiency. Summer and winter management problems and their solutions.
Unit 5: Shelter Management
Housing systems, Selection of site and lay out of animal and poultry houses. Space requirement for livestock and poultry, Housing designs in different agro-climatic regions. Macro and micro- climatic changes affecting designs of animal and poultry houses. BIS (standards) for livestock and poultry housing. Construction of cheap animal and poultry housing utilizing local resources. Automation in livestock farming. Types & designs of Milking parlours suitable for different scales of production. Disposal of animal wastes under urban and rural conditions. Disposal of carcasses.
Unit 6: Health Management
General approach to livestock health programmes. Prevention of diseases. Hygiene and sanitation on animal farm. Symptoms of ill health, important infectious diseases of livestock and poultry and their control. Vaccination schedules in animals and poultry. Internal and external parasites and their control. Accidental health disorders and their control. Common disinfectants used on animal farms. Concept of first aid at farms. Segregation and quarantine management for large animals and birds. Quarantine Act, Zoonotic diseases, labour health programme.
Unit 7: Production and Management of Cattle and Buffalo
Cattle and buffalo production trends and factors affecting them. Prenatal and postnatal care and management of cattle and buffalo. Care of neonates and young calves. Management strategies for reducing mortality in calves, age at first calving, and calving intervals. Management to improve reproductive efficiency in cattle and buffalo. Management strategies against summer & winter stress. Feed conversion efficiency for growth and milk production. Application of body condition scoring & other scoring techniques to improve productivity & efficiency of dairy animals. Milking management: hand vs machine milking practices. Standard milking protocols for clean milk production. Management practices for high yielding cows & buffaloes. Standard norms for manpower deployment for dairy farms & measures for improving labour efficiency. Dairy farm management efficiency measures. Mechanization & automation of various dairy farm operations (milking, feeding, waste disposal, heat detection, identification & health monitoring).
Unit 8: Production and Management of Other Animals
Draft animals: Population dynamics of various categories of draft and work animals in India. Characteristics of draft animals. Estimating draft capacity of different species. Harness for various types of draft animals. Training of work animals. Feeding, care and management of draft animals. Management of camel with special reference to rearing, feeding and watering. Behavioural studies of various draft animals. Economics of draft animals vis-à-vis machine power.
Sheep and goat: Selection of breeds and breeding systems for improving wool, mohair, meat and milk. Feeding practices for economic rearing. Scope of intensive milk and meat production from goat. Mutton and wool production from sheep. Low cost shelter management. Sheep and goat reproduction. Health management.
Poultry: Brooding of chicks. Management of growing, laying and breeding flocks. Shelter management. Cage layer management and well-being of birds. Light management. Hatchery business management. Management during stress. Chick sexing. Maintenance of farm records. Health and sanitation problems. Prevention and disease control. Poultry shows. Handling care of table eggs and processing of birds for meat.
Equine: Care and management of horses, feeding and breeding systems, shelter management, shoeing, preparation and management of race horses.
Swine: Importance of pig as a meat animal. Selection of breeds and breeding systems for improving pig production. Feeding strategies for pigs. Care and Management of pregnant sows and unweaned piglets. Reproduction problems in pigs and remedial measures.
Rabbit: Economic importance. Important fur and meat type breeds. Housing, handling, feeding, watering, breeding, management, sanitation and health care of rabbits.
Unit 9: Wildlife Management
Status of wildlife in India and its conservation. Biological and ecological basis of management of wildlife. Breeding and feeding of wildlife in captivity. Principles & practices health management of wild animals.
Unit 10: Forage Production and Conservation
Classification of feeds and forages. Feed and fodder resources used for feeding of livestock and poultry. Nutritive value of feeds and fodders. Conservation and
preservation of feeds and fodders. Annual and perennial fodder crops. Strategies for round the year fodder production. Pasture development and management. Enrichment of poor quality roughages.
Unit 11: Economics and Marketing of Livestock and Poultry and their Products
Economic principles as applied to livestock production. Production functions. Farm size, resources and product combinations. Cost concepts. Criteria for use of resources in livestock production. Maintenance of evaluation of different production records. Insurance and financing of livestock enterprises. Project formulation for setting up livestock farms. Different approaches to marketing of livestock and its products. Present status of cattle fairs and methods of selling livestock. Market news and information. Estimation of cost of different livestock products (milk, meat, egg & wool). Determination of prices of livestock products.
5.4 LIVESTOCK PRODUCTS TECHNOLOGY
Unit 1: Basic and General Aspects of Livestock Products
Composition and physico-chemical properties of cow and buffalo milk. Milk proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins and other minor constituents of milk. Nutritive value of milk. Reception of milk - platform tests, filtration and clarification, chilling, separation, standardization, pasteurization and homogenization. Cleaning and sanitation of dairy equipments.
Present status and future prospects of meat and poultry industry. Structure, composition, physical biochemical and nutritive aspects, and functional properties of different kinds of meat, fish, poultry and eggs. Sensory evaluation and organoleptic properties of livestock products. Post-mortem aspects of muscle as meat. Ageing of meat and chemical changes. Meat in human health. Bacteria, yeasts, molds, parasites important in food microbiology. General principles of spoilage. Chemical and deteriorative changes caused by micro-organisms. Contamination and spoilage of meat, fish, poultry and eggs. Food poisoning and food-borne infections. Assessment of microbial condition and wholesomeness of different livestock products. National and International microbial standards.
Unit 2: Abattoir and Poultry Processing Plants
Origin and source of animal foods. Lay out, construction, design, organization, operation and maintenance of abattoirs and poultry processing plants. Pre-slaughter care and slaughtering techniques for different animals and birds. Ante-mortem and post-mortem inspection. Judging and grading of animals and birds on foot and on rail. Condemnation and disposal of unfit material. Disposal of slaughterhouse effluents. Sanitation, plant operation and maintenance. Sanitary standards for meat packing plants. Meat cutting and deboning. Adulteration and misrepresentation of meat. State, municipal and other regulations pertaining to meat trade. Meat food products order. Processing and utilization of various animal and poultry by-products, slaughterhouse and poultry plant offals. Methods of utilization of blood, fat, hides and skin, horns, hooves, wool, hair, feather, glands and other by-products. Importance and utilization of by-products in industry, Application of computer science in abattoir operation. Robot technology and its application in meat and poultry industry.
Unit 3: Processing and Preservation
Principles of processing of dairy products. Special milk: sterilized milk, flavoured milk, homogenized milk, soft curd milk, Vitaminized/irradiated milk, fermented milk, standardized milk, reconstituted/rehydrated milk, recombined milk, toned, double toned milk, skimmed milk, Humanized milk. Processing of dairy products: - butter, butter oil, ice-cream, fresh and ripened cheeses, cream, condensed milk, dried milk, dried milk products etc. Indigenous dairy products: ghee, khoa, dahi, misti dahi, makkhan, chhana, paneer, Khurchan, Lassi, kunda, milk cake, Organic milk.
Principles of preservation of livestock products. Equipment and technology of processing and preservation. Industrial food preservation, chilling, freezing, freeze drying, dehydration, canning irradiation, pasteurization, curing, smoking, use of chemical additives and antibiotics. Cooking methods including micro-wave cooking. Tenderisation and use of enzymes for processed foods. Production of value added products, process methods, process optimization and quality control. Development and preservation self-stable (canned and dehydrated) intermediate moisture, textured, cured, fermented fabricated meat and poultry products. Sanitation, regulation and inspection of processed meat foods. Effect of processing on nutritional, chemical, microbiological and organoleptic qualities of livestock products. Economics of pre-costing and product development. Application of biotechnology in processing and preservation of meat, poultry and fish products. Bioactive products and biogenic amines.
Unit 4: Wool, Mohair and Fur
Basic aspects of wool science. Shearing, physical and chemical characteristics, processing, grading, standardization, storage and marketing of wool, mohair and fur (National and International).
Unit 5: Packaging
Principles of packaging. Types of packaging materials. Characterization, methods and systems of packaging. Gas packing, Vacuum packing, modified atmosphere packing, shrink and stretch packing, industrial packaging. Aseptic and retort pouches. Standardization and quality control of packaging material. Product attributes and packaging requirements for different livestock products. Latest trends in packaging of meat, poultry, eggs, wool and fish products: Active and smart packaging, antimicrobial packaging, edible films and coatings, nanocomposite materials for food packaging.
Unit 6: Quality Control
Grades and grading of livestock products. Stress factors effecting meat quality – PSE, DFD, Hot boning, Cold shortening and electrical stimulation. Regulatory and inspection methods – Municipal and State laws. Bureau of Indian Standards and International Standards of fresh meat and poultry including their products and by-products. Detection of antibiotics, chemical residues, heavy metals and toxins in meat. Techniques for detection of adulteration of meat. HACCP concept of quality control of meat, fish, poultry and eggs.
Unit 7: Marketing
Livestock production and supply characteristics. Meat consumption and related demands. Types of market and trends in marketing livestock products and by-products, wholesale, retail and future trends. Consumer aptitude, education and awareness, and popularization of new products. Corporate bodies in regulation of markets, marketing boards, Co-operative agencies, internal trade and development of international market for livestock products. Organization, operation and sanitation of meat, poultry, fish and egg retailing units. Fast food chains and super markets. Situation and outlook and methods for promotion and marketing of livestock products.
5.5 POULTRY SCIENCE
Unit 1: Poultry Genetics and Breeding
Phylogeny of poultry species, class, breed, variety and strains of chickens, ducks, geese, turkeys and other species of poultry. Mendelian traits in poultry. Inheritance of qualitative traits in poultry and their usefulness. Inheritance of comb, plumage and other qualitative traits. Sex-linked and sex influenced traits, their inheritance and usefulness. Economically important traits and their modes of inheritance. Gene action influencing the traits. Lethal and semi-lethal traits in poultry and their mode of inheritance. Quantitative traits. Inheritance of egg number, egg weight, growth rate, livability, fertility, hatchability, egg quality and other economic traits. Heritability and their estimates. Genetic correlations, their computation and application. Selection methods for genetic improvement-natural, artificial, directional, disruptive and stabilizing. Individual selection and family selection. Mass selection, combined selection and indirect selection. Construction of selection indices. Exploitation of additive and non-additive gene effects. Selection for specific characters. Recurrent and reciprocal recurrent selection. Part record versus complete record selection. Genotype and environment interaction. Relative merits and demerits of different methods of selection. Different mating systems-Diallel mating, pair mating, pen mating and block mating. Artificial insemination – collection and insemination techniques, dilution, diluents and cryopreservation of semen. Inbreeding and out-breeding. Pure-line breeding. Cross-breeding. Hybridization and hybrid vigour in improving economic traits, 3-way and 4-way crossing and development of hybrids. Modern trends in commercial poultry breeding. Major genes and their usefulness in poultry breeding in tropics. Dwarf gene and its usefulness in broiler breeding. Practical breeding programmes for developing broilers and layers. Selection for disease resistance. Immunogenetics. Blood group systems. Biochemical polymorphism and usefulness in poultry breeding. Development of transgenic chicken. Different molecular techniques for estimation of genetic diversity and similarity among breeds and lines of poultry. Scope of integrating quantitative and molecular approaches for genetic selection in poultry.
Unit 2: Poultry Nutrition
Various nutrients and their role in poultry. Nutrient requirements of different species of poultry as per Bureau of Indian Standards and National Research Council of the USA. Partition of energy. Estimation of M.E. and T.M.E. Essential and critical amino acids and their inter-relationships. Evaluation of protein quality. Essential fatty acids. Essential vitamins and minerals and their functions. Nutrients deficiency, toxicity, synergism and antagonism. Naturally occurring toxicants, their adverse effects on poultry and methods to overcome them. Fungal exotoxins of feed origin, their adverse effects on poultry, and methods to overcome them. Different systems of feeding wet mash, dry mash, crumble and pellet feeding. Restricted and phase feeding programme. Male separate feeding. Factors influencing the feed intake. Feed ingredients and sources of various nutrients. Quality control and BIS specifications for feed ingredients. Unconventional feed stuffs and their utilization for economic feed formulation. Feed formulation for different species and groups. Least cost feed formulation and linear programming. Non – nutrient feed additives. Antibiotics, probiotics – direct feed microbials, antimicrobials, anticoccidials, performance-promoters, antioxidants, flavouring agents, colouring agents and other non-nutrient feed additives.
Unit 3: Avian Physiology
Homeostasis and its regulation; Characteristics features of endocrine glands; Regulation of feed and water intake; Feed Passage rate in G.I. tract in relation to digestion and absorption efficiency; Functional regulation of digestion, absorption and metabolism of nutrients; Endocrine control and variable factors influencing growth process; Mechanisms that determines the sex and allows the development of left ovary and oviduct only; Physiological control of age at sexual maturity, ovarian follicular hierarchy, atresia, ovulation, oviposition, pause, clutch size and secretion of egg components; Photoperiodism and its role in optimization of reproductive functions; physiology of avian testes, spermatogenesis, semen ejaculation and its characteristics. Fate of sperm in oviduct and fertilization; Respiratory system – mechanisms of gaseous exchange; Thermoregulatory and stress mechanisms; Physio-biochemical stress responses and remedial approaches; Factors influencing reproductive functioning.
Unit 4: Poultry Products Technology
Structure, chemical composition and nutritive value of egg. Various measures of egg quality. Shell, albumen and yolk quality assessment. Factors influencing egg quality traits. Mechanism of deterioration of egg quality. Weight and quality grades of egg as per BIS, Agmark and USDA standards. Egg processing and storage. Different methods of preservation of table eggs and their relative merits and demerits. Preparation of various egg products and their uses. Processing, packing, preservation and grading of poultry meat. Further processing and fast food preparation. Physical, chemicals, microbial and organoleptic evaluation of meat quality. Processing and utilization of egg and poultry processing waste.
Unit 5: Poultry Management
Poultry industry in India – past, present and future prospects. Statistics of egg and meat production in India. Major constraints facing the poultry industry. Selection, care and storage of hatching eggs. Principles and methods of incubation. Concept of modern hatcheries. Factors essential for incubation of eggs. Testing of eggs. High altitudes and hatchability of eggs. Embryonic communication. Photo acceleration and embryonic growth. Factors influencing hatchability and production of quality chicks. Analyzing hatchability problems. Hatchery hygiene. Fumigation procedure. Prevention of hatchery borne diseases. Utilization and disposal of hatchery waste. Prerequisite of good hatchery. Lay out of a modern hatchery. Equipments required in a modern hatchery. Single and multi-stage incubators. Hatchery business. Sexing, handling, packaging and transportation of chicks. Principles and methods of brooding. Space required for brooding, rearing, feeding and watering. Preparation of brooder house to receive young chicks. Forced feeding of turkey poults. Brooding of quails, ducklings and turkey poults. Managements during growing period. Overcrowding, culling. Management of replacement pullets for egg production and breeding stocks. Management of layers and breeders. Light management. Debeaking, dubbing and other farm routines. Littre management. Broodiness and forced moulting in layers. Management of turkey, ducks, quails and Guinea fowl. Summer and winter management.
Farm location and site selection. Ideal layout of poultry houses for different systems of rearing. Design of poultry houses like brooder, grower, broiler, layer and cage house, poultry processing unit, feed mill, etc. Environmentally controlled and open poultry houses. Types of construction materials used. Cross-ventilation and ridge ventilation. Effect of pollution on production performance of birds. Ammonia control in poultry houses. Type of brooders, feeders, waters, laying nests, cages, etc. Automation in poultry production.
Unit 6: Economics and Marketing
Economic principles as applied to poultry production. Production functions. Farm size-resources and product combinations, efficiency criteria in use of resources in poultry production. Cost concept. Maintenance and evaluation of different production records. Insurance and financing of poultry enterprises. Project formulation for setting up of poultry farms and hatcheries. Production and requirement of poultry products in India and for exports. Various marketing channels. Transportation of eggs and chicken. Marketing approaches. Horizontal and vertical integration in poultry industry and their importance. Price spread in marketing of poultry and poultry products. Role of cooperatives in poultry farming.
Unit 7: Poultry Health Management
Common diseases of poultry – bacterial, viral, fungal, protozoan, parasitic and other emerging diseases of poultry, their prevention, control and treatment. Metabolic and nutrient deficiency diseases and disorders. Vaccination programmes. Deworming programmes. Control of coccidiosis, worms, ectoparasites and flies. Medication procedures. Cleaning and disinfection of poultry houses. Drinking water sanitation. General farm sanitation and hygiene. Safe disposal of dead birds and farm waste. Stress control. Heat stroke. Cold shock. Vices of poultry and their control. Bio-security measures in poultry farms.
5.6 VETERINARY PHYSIOLOGY
Unit 1: Cellular Basis of Animal Physiology
Animal cell ultra-structure, composition and functions. Physio-chemical laws and membrane phenomena. Body fluid and its dynamics. Transport of through biological membranes.
Unit 2: Blood and Circulation
Composition of blood, structure & functioning of its constitutes. Blood coagulation and anticoagulants. Hemoglobin and its polymorphism. Anaemias. Reticulo-endothelial System. Body defense mechanism and immunogenesis.
Electrophysiology of heart. Electro-cardiography – Principles and interpretation. Hemodynamics and concerned biophysical principles. Capillary fluid exchange and lymphatic circulation. Neural and humoral control of heart and blood vessels. Cardiac Output and vascular reflexes. Autoregulation mechanism in the heart Regional circulation – coronary, pulmonary, cerebral, muscle, kidney and skin, blood brain barrier. Circulatory shock and hypertension and cardiac failure.
Unit 3: Respiration
Mechanics of respiration. Neural and chemical control of respiration. Gaseous transport and exchange. Hypoxia. Physiology of hypo-barrism and high altitude. Work and exercise physiology.
Unit 4: Excretion
Modern concepts of urine formation. Control of renal circulation. Secretion and absorption in renal tubules. Regulation of acid-base balance by blood buffers, lungs and kidneys. Hormonal and renal regulation of body fluids and electrolyte balance. Physiology of micturition. Uremia and other renal disorders.
Unit 5: Digestion
Control of motility and secretion of alimentary canal. Gastric hormones and reflexes in the control of digestive functions. Control of rumen motility. Digestion in ruminant and monogastric animals. Absorption from rumen and the digestive tract. Manipulation of rumen microflora to enhance fibre digestion and microbial protein synthesis. Nitrogen recycling and rumen bypass mechanisms. Post-ruminal digestion. Physiology of rumen disorders.
Unit 6: Muscle Physiology
Muscle types and their intra-cellular contractile mechanisms. Electrophysiology of muscles. Neuromuscular junction. Excitation contraction coupling, its biochemical and ionic mechanisms. Molecular basis of muscle contraction. Rigor mortis.
Unit 7: Nervous System
General organization of nervous system. Neurone structure and function. Excitability and transmission of impulse in neuron and muscle. Junctional transmission. Neuro-transmitters. Reflex action. Initiation of impulses from sense organ/receptors. Functions of spinal cord, brain stem and cerebellum. Limbic system and cerebral cortex. Hypothalamus and its autonomic functions in endocrine and visceral regulation. Ascending and descending tracts. Cerebral cortex, its role in motor and sensory functions. Physiology of learning and memory. Physiology of pain. Special senses (hearing, vision, taste, smell etc.).
Unit 8: Endocrinology
Hormones. Hormone receptors. Mechanism of hormone action at cellular and sub – cellular levels. Feedback control of hormone secretion. Hypothalamic – hypophyseal axis. It should include (i) Hypothalamic – hypophyseal axis controlling secretions from thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal and gonads, (ii) Endocrine control of general metalbolism. Releasing and inhibiting factors.
Pineal gland and its hormones. Hormones of hypophysis and all other endocrine glands. Mechanisms of different hormone actions. Endocrine disorders.
Unit 9: Reproduction
Gonadal hormones and their functions in male and female. Neuroendocrine-gonadal axis and feedback regulation. Male spermatogenesis. Accessory sex glands. Sexual behaviour erection, ejaculation etc. Semen evaluation. Factors affecting reproduction. Artificial insemination – collection, preservation and transport and semen diluents. Freezing of semen. Oogenesis. Follicular development. Ovulation. Corpus luteum. Reproductive cycles in animals. Factors affecting reproductive cycles. Female reproductive hormones. Oestrous synchronization, super-ovulation. Sperm capacitation and acrosomal reaction. Sperm and ovum transport in female genital tract. Fertilization. Implantation. Maternal recognition of pregnancy, Maintenance of pregnancy and its hormonal control. Physiology of placenta. Physiology of parturition and its hormonal control. Embryo transfer – collection, preservation, transport and transfer of embryos. Oocyte culture. In vitro fertilization. Mammary gland growth before puberty, during pregnancy and after parturition and its hormonal control. Lactation-Hormonal control of lactation and milk let-down. Maintenance and cessation of lactation. Mammary gland involution. Milk precursors and synthesis of milk constituents. Methods of studying mammary uptake of nutrients, Ultrastructure of lactating mammary gland. Milk composition in different animals.
Unit 10: Physiology of Growth
Concept and definition. Growth regulation and factors affection prenatal and post-natal growth. Role of growth in production. Growth curve and growth measurement, body conformation.
Unit 11: Climate Physiology
Physiology of climatic stress. Effects of stress on production and reproduction. Neuro-hormonal regulation of body temperature in homeotherms. Mechanism of adaptation. Photoperiodicity and biological rhythms. Design of shelters / animal houses for different class of livestock for different climate conditions.
06. VETERINARY AND ANIMAL SCIENCES-II
(6.1 Veterinary Parasitology, 6.2 Veterinary Public Health/Veterinary Public Health & Epidemiology, 6.3 Animal Biochemistry, 6.4 Animal Biotechnology, 6.5 Veterinary Microbiology, 6.6 Veterinary Pathology)
6.1 VETERINARY PARASITOLOGY
Veterinary Helminthology (Platyhelminthes, Nemanthelminthes), Veterinary Entomology (Insecta and Acarina), Veterinary Protozoology (Parasitic Protozoa), Clinical Parasitology, Parasitic Zoonoses, Diagnostic Parasitology, Management of Livestock Parasitism, Immunoparasitology, Antiparasite drug testing guidelines.
Unit 1: Veterinary Helminthology
Introduction to veterinary helminthology, general account of morphology, classification, life-cycle patterns, epizootiology, pathogenesis, symptoms, diagnosis; treatment and control of parasites belonging to the various families.
Unit 2: Veterinary Entomology
Introduction to veterinary entomology, classification, distributions, morphology, life-cycle, seasonal patterns and economic significance of insects and acarines belonging to the various families. Treatment, control and integrated arthropod pest management. Current advances in immunological interventions/ Control of arthropods.
Unit 3: Veterinary Protozoology
Introduction to veterinary protozoology, classification, morphology, life-cycle, clinical symptoms, pathogenesis, diagnosis, chemotherapy, prophylaxis and control of parasites belonging to the various families.
Unit 4: Clinical Parasitology
Clinical and parasitological signs of parasitic infections in domestic animals, Parasitic diseases of skin, eyes, alimentary, respiratory, urinary, genital, nervous, cardio-vascular and haematopoietic systems. Keys to identification and different diagnosis of helminthic eggs, nematode larvae, gravid proglottids of major tape worms, blood protozoans and apicomplexan group of parasites.
Unit 5: Parasitic Zoonoses
Introduction and importance of parasitic zoonoses, classification of parasitic zoonoses, geo-veterinary and epidemiological aspects including factors influencing prevalence, distribution and transmission of diseases. Role of reservoir hosts, natural habitat, wildlife and their public health significance, clinical features, pathology, diagnosis, treatment, control and prophylaxis of zoonotic parasitic infections.
Unit 6: Management of Livestock Parasitism
Factors affecting epidemiology, host environment, development and survival of infective stages, microhabitat, seasonal development (hypobiosis/diapause), dietary and host factors altering susceptibility, concurrent infections. Influence of genetic factors, general approaches to control of parasitic diseases – stock management practises, stock rates, rotational grazing, clean grazing. Parasite worm burden (EPG). Strategic and tactical control strategies involved in chemical control of helminth, protozoan and arthropod infestations. Broad and narrow-spectrum anthelmintics, antiprotozoal drugs, insecticides and acaricides. Newer drug delivery systems-slow and pulse release methods. Anthelmintic failure – drug resistance monitoring and management. Prospects of alternative methods of control, breeding for host resistance against parasites. Control of vectors and intermediate hosts and sustainable management. Estimation of economical losses due to parasitic diseases.
Unit 7: Immunoparasitology
General principles of parasitic immunity and immune responses to helminths, protozoa, arthropods – The adaptive immune responses, evasion of immunity, classical antiparasite responses – concomitant immunity, premunition, spring-rise, self-cure, VLM, CLM, parasitic granuloma, nodule formation, Parasitic antigens relevant to immunity and diagnosis, their identification and purification-general protocols, immunomodulators and their use in immunopotentiation. Demonstration and characterisation. Development of live, attenuated, killed and new generation vaccines.
Unit 8: Diagnostic Parasitology
Laboratory diagnostic procedures for parasite identification and detection, coprodetection techniques, floatation/concentration, methods, direct microscopy, parasitic staining and special techniques used in parasite identification. Culture and identification of nematode larvae, cercaria, identification of metacestodes and animal infestation, methods for parasite isolation. Diagnostic procedures for manage and bot infestations. General immunodiagnostic assays (ELISA, IFAT, Dot-ELISA, EITB). Principles of validation of diagnostic assays, and OIE recommendations for diagnosis and knowledge of referral laboratory of O.I.E. and molecular techniques used in parasite epidemiology and diagnosis.
6.2 VETERINARY PUBLIC HEALTH/VETERINARY PUBLIC HEALTH & EPIDEMIOLOGY
Unit 1: Veterinary Public Health
Definitions, concept of Public Health, Intersectoral approach to Human Health, Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary Public Health, Human health goals, veterinarians participation in public health and justifications, Veterinary Public Health Unit – its dimensions and functions, National and International organizations related with Public and Veterinary Public Health, Rural health, Role of Public Health Veterinarians in Public Health, Health Delivery System.
Unit 2: Milk Hygiene
Definitions, Dairy Industry and milk hygiene in India and other countries, Microbiology, of milk and milk products, microbial spoilage of milk and its products, Bacteriophage, Contamination of milk and its products, Public health aspects of residues: agricultural chemicals, antibiotics and drugs, toxic metals, plant toxins, mycotoxins and adulterants, Milk borne diseases, Milk hygiene, Hygienic aspects of production of milk and processing and manufacture of milk products, Clean milk production, Prevention of contamination by sanitation at dairy farm, collection centers, milk processing and manufacturing plants. Pasteurization, Sterilization, Standards. Quality control tests applied to milk and milk products.
Unit 3: Meat Hygiene
Definitions, Meat industry and meat hygiene in India and other countries. Raising meat food animals and birds, their trade and transport. Hygienic aspects of slaughter, bleeding, dressing and processing and manufacture of carcass meat and meat products. Rigor mortis, Emergency and causality slaughter. Abattoir/ Meat plant Sanitation, Microbiology of meat and their products. Sources of contamination, Disposal and reclamation of slaughterhouse wastes and by-products and associated public health problems. Spoilage of meat and meat products, Preservation of meat. Meat food safety, Ante mortem and post mortem examination, Inspection of poultry meat, eggs, fish and meat from game animals, Judgment, Indices of sanitary quality, National and International standards, Bacteriological, serological and biochemical tests for quality control, substitution and adulteration.
Section 4: Food-borne Infections and Intoxications
Definitions, Classifications of Food borne diseases, Meat-borne diseases, Milk-borne diseases, Infections and intoxications traced to consumption of fish/eggs, Fast/Street/Convenience foods, Epidemiological characteristics of food-borne infections and intoxications, Sources of pathogens and factors favouring for poisoning, bacterial, viral, protozoan, helminthic, mycotic and chemical food poisoning, Epidemiological investigation of food-borne infections and intoxications, Food specific attack rate. Odd ratio, Detection of foodborne pathogens and their toxins. Management of food poisoning.
Unit 5: Zoonoses
Definitions, Concept and classification of Zoonoses, Ecological aspects of Zoonoses, Wild animals-, cold blooded animals - domestic animals -, and aquatic life, -associated Zoonoses, Vectors-, milk-, meat-, egg-, fish- and water- spread Zoonoses, Occupational zoonoses, Nosocomial zoonoses, xenozoonoses, Nationally and internationally emerging and re-emerging Zoonoses, Epidemiology of bacterial, rickettsial, viral, parasitic and mycotic Zoonoses, Principles of Zoonoses management: methods of prevention, control and eradication of Zoonoses.
Unit 6: Environmental Hygiene
Natural sources of water, water hygiene, Pure and wholesome water; microbial contamination and chemical pollution of water, Impurities in water, plankton, Purification and sanitization of water, Waterborne diseases, Microbiological examination of water, Potable water, Standards for drinking water. The atmosphere. Air Pollutants, Air-borne pathogens and diseases, Ventilation, Methods of air purification. Agricultural chemicals, industrial wastes, domestic and farm effluents polluting environment – and associated hazards and preventive measures. Antibiotic and pesticide residues and their effect on health. Waste-recycling, Methods of disposal of dead animals. Rodents and Vector control measures.
Unit 7: Epidemiology
Definitions, Epidemiology, Epizootiology, Causal association, concept of infection, Theory of natural nidality, Ecological basis of diseases, Disease transmission, Epidemic process, Distribution of diseases in space and time, Epidemiological hypothesis, Types of epidemiological studies, Epidemiological survey, surveillance, monitoring of diseases, experimental epidemiology, epidemiological measurements, Predictive epidemiology, Epidemiological models, Sero-epidemiology. Use of information technology and computer applications in disease monitoring, Epidemiological investigation and evaluation of intervention measures.
Unit 8: Experimental Animal Medicine
Occupational health and safety in the care and use of research animals. Breeding, care and management of experimental animals, Production of gnotobiotic, germfree, specific pathogen free, transgenic, syngenic animals and tailor-made animals in relation to public health, provisions of Animal welfare and Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act.
Unit 9: Health Education
Health education, communication techniques, Participatory programmes for awareness creation among agricultural workers, butchers, laboratory staff and those engaged in zoological gardens, laboratory animals rearing, processing of animal produce about occupational hazards and hazards to consumers.
Unit 10: Standard Guidelines and Legislation
Definitions, standards/guidelines of products and product ingredients. Hazards Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP), Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP), Good Laboratory Practices (GLP), Milk and Milk Product Order (MMPO), Meat Food Products Order (MFPO), Total Quality Management (TQM), Quality assurance and food safety management systems, Bureau of Indian Standards, International Organization for Standards, Codex Alimentarius, World Trade Order, Sanitary and Phyto-sanitary (SPS) measures, Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), National and International Standards related to milk, meat, fish and their products and hygienic standards to ensure safety to domestic and foreign consumers of products of animal origin.
Unit 11: Microbiology in Public Health
Food microbiology, Characters of food bacteria, moulds, yeast and virus, Classifications of food microbes according to their requirements for growth – temperature, acidity, moisture, oxygen and salt concentration, resistance to microenvironment, Food processing and preservation methods. Pathogen- virulence factors, microbial enzymes, toxic metabolites and other molecules associated with pathogenic mechanisms. Resistance mechanism of survival in environment in and outside the host, Antigens eliciting protective and diagnostic antibodies, Microbiological, Serological, Biological and Nucleotide based diagnostic methods. Issues on bioterrorism.
6.3 ANIMAL BIOCHEMISTRY
Scope of Biochemistry and molecular biology in animal sciences. Structural and functional organization of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, viruses and bacteriophages. Compartmentalization of metabolic processes within the cell and fractionation of subcellular components. Structure and functions of biomembranes with special reference to active transport of ions and metabolites. Extra and intracellular communication. General description of cell culture, hybridoma and animal cloning techniques.
Structure and properties of biologically important carbohydrates including storage and structural polysaccharides, mucopolysaccharides, blood group substances, peptidoglycans and bacterial polysaccharides. Structure and properties of fatty acids, acyl glycerol, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, sterols, bile acids and prostaglandins. Basic principles of isolation, estimation and analysis of carbohydrates and lipids.
Aminoacids, structure and properties. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure of proteins. Glycoproteins, lipoproteins, nucleoproteins, fibrous and globular proteins. Structure and functions of immunoglobulins, myoglobin and hemoglobin. Physical and chemical properties of proteins. Structure of different types of nucleic acids. Acid base properties, sedimentation behaviour, hyperchromic effect, base sequencing and restriction analysis of DNA. Computer applications in molecular biology, primer designing, sequence analysis and phylogenetic analysis.
Major classes of enzymes, general properties, kinetics and mechanism of their action. Activation energy and transition state. Coenzymes and cofactors. Regulation of enzyme activity and enzyme inhibition. Isoenzymes and enzymes of clinical significance. Applications and scope of enzymes in bioprocess technology and genetic engineering.
Bioenergetics, biological oxidation, respiratory chain and oxidative phosphorylation. Citric acid cycle and ATP generation. Glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway and glycogenesis. Biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids. Volatile fatty acids as source of energy in ruminants. Ketogenesis and cause of ketosis in ruminants. Biosynthesis of sterols and phospholipids. Catabolism of amino acids, transamination and determination, urea cycle. Integration of carbohydrate, lipid and amino acid metabolism. Conversion of amino acids into other bioactive compounds. Biosynthesis of nutritionally non-essential amino acids. Metabolism of purines and pyrimidines. Disorders of lipid, carbohydrate, nucleic acid and amino acid metabolism. Inborn errors of metabolism and scope of gene therapy in combating genetic disorders.
Mechanism of storage, transmissions and expression of genetic information. DNA replication and control of gene expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. RNA synthesis and factors regulating transcription. Biosynthesis of proteins. Features of genetic code in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Wobble hypothesis, post-translational modification, degeneracy and regulation of translation. Basic principles of recombinant DNA technology and its scope in animal health and production. Recombinant proteins and vaccines, safety, ethical issues and IPRs in molecular biology.
Structure and metabolic functions of water soluble and lipid soluble vitamins. Trace elements and their role in biological processes. Deficiencies and nutritional significance of vitamins and trace elements in domestic animals and poultry, nutraceuticals & probiotics. General description of nature of hormones, receptors and mechanisms of their action. Metabolic function of different hormones and associated disorders due to hypo or hyper secretions of major endocrine glands viz. pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, pancreas and gonads.
Blood composition and biochemical constituents of erythrocytes, leucocytes and platelets. Important plasma proteins and their functions. Haemoglobin in oxygen and carbon dioxide transport. Role of kidneys in acid base balance. Composition and metabolism of muscle, connective, tissue, cartilage, bone, nervous, tissue, adipose tissue and mammary tissue. Clinical significance of iron, iodine calcium and phosphorus metabolism in domestic animals and poultry. Biochemical tests for hepatic and renal functions. Urine composition and analysis.
Basic principles and use of latest photometric, chromatographic, electrophoretic and radioisotopic methods of biochemical analysis. Methods of isolation, purification and characterization of proteins, DNA and RNA. Basic principles of RIA, ELISA, PCR, RFLP and DNA fingerprinting NA probes, vectors, microarray, imaging, applications of nanotechnology, proteomics. Determination of enzymes, hormones, vitamins and other biochemical constituents with special reference to disease diagnosis in domestic animals.
Environmental pollution in relation to animal health and production. Biotechnology in pollution control. Biochemical basis of pollutant tolerance, host defence mechanisms including antigenic and non-antigenic interactions. Free radicals, carcinogenesis and role of liver and kidneys in detoxification. Oncogenes and mechanism of immunosuppression in cancer therapy and organ transplantation.
6.4 ANIMAL BIOTECHNOLOGY
Unit 1: Biomolecules and their Interaction Relevant to Biology
Structure and function of biomolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids and vitamins). Stabilizing interactions (Van der Waals, electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic interaction, etc.). Basics of biophysical chemistry (pH, buffer, reaction kinetics, thermodynamics, colligative properties).
Principles of catalysis, enzymes and enzyme kinetics, enzyme regulation, mechanism of enzyme catalysis, isozymes.
Conformation of proteins (Ramachandran plot, secondary structure, domains, motif and folds).
Types of nucleic acids (helix A, B, Z DNA), (types of coding and noncoding RNA).
Stability of proteins and nucleic acids.
Metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids and nucleotides.
Unit 2: Cell Biology
Membrane structure and function (Structure of model membrane, lipid bilayer and membrane protein diffusion, osmosis, ion channels, active transport, membrane pumps, mechanism of sorting and regulation of intracellular transport, electrical properties of membranes).
Structural organization and function of intracellular organelles (Cell wall, nucleus, mitochondria, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, peroxisomes, plastids, vacuoles, chloroplast, structure & function of cytoskeleton and its role in motility).
Organization of genes and chromosomes in Bacteria and eukaryotes (Operon concept in bacteria, unique and repetitive DNA, interrupted genes, gene families, structure of chromatin and chromosomes, heterochromatin, euchromatin, mobile genetic elements).
Cell division and cell cycle (Mitosis and meiosis, their regulation, steps in cell cycle, regulation and control of cell cycle).
Specialised cell and tissue culture in animal science: Sperm cell Oocyte. In-vitro fertilization. Transgenesis. Stem cell: Embryonic and somatic stem cell.
Microbial Physiology (Growth yield and characteristics, strategies of cell division, stress response)
Unit 3: Fundamental Cellular Processes
DNA replication, repair and recombination (Unit of replication, enzymes involved, replication origin and replication fork, fidelity of replication, extrachromosomal replicons, DNA damage and repair mechanisms, homologous and site-specific and cre lox recombination).
RNA synthesis and processing (transcription factors and machinery, formation of initiation complex, transcription activator and repressor, RNA polymerases, capping, elongation, and termination, RNA processing, RNA editing, splicing, and polyadenylation, structure and function of different types of RNA, RNA transport).
Protein synthesis and processing (Ribosome, formation of initiation complex, initiation factors and their regulation, elongation and elongation factors, termination, genetic code, aminoacylation of tRNA, tRNA-identity, aminoacyl tRNA synthetase, and translational proof-reading, translational inhibitors, Post- translational modification of proteins).
Control of gene expression at transcription and translation level (regulating the expression of phages, viruses, prokaryotic and eukaryotic genes, role of chromatin in gene expression and gene silencing). Epigenetic regulation of gene expression.
Unit4: Cell Communication and Cell Signalling
Cell signaling Hormones and their receptors, cell surface receptor, signaling through G-protein coupled receptors, signal transduction pathways, second messengers, regulation of signaling pathways, bacterial and plant two-component systems, light signaling in plants, bacterial chemotaxis and quorum sensing.
Cellular communication Regulation of hematopoiesis, general principles of cell communication, cell adhesion and roles of different adhesion molecules, gap junctions, extracellular matrix, integrins, neurotransmission and its regulation.
Cancer Genetic rearrangements in progenitor cells, oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, cancer and the cell cycle, virus-induced cancer, metastasis, interaction of cancer cells with normal cells, apoptosis, therapeutic interventions of uncontrolled cell growth. Cellular and viral oncogenes.
Innate and adaptive immune system Cells and molecules involved in innate and adaptive immunity, antigens, antigenicity and immunogenicity. B and T cell epitopes, structure and function of antibody molecules. generation of antibody diversity, monoclonal antibodies, antibody engineering, antigen-antibody interactions, MHC molecules, antigen processing and presentation, activation and differentiation of B and T cells, B and T cell receptors, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, primary and secondary immune modulation, the complement system, Toll-like receptors, cell-mediated effector functions, inflammation.
Unit 5: Molecular Biology and Recombinant DNA methods
Basics of DNA, RNA and Proteins: Isolation and purification of RNA , DNA (genomic and plasmid) and proteins, different separation methods. Analysis of RNA, DNA and proteins by one and two dimensional gel electrophoresis, Isoelectric focusing gels.
Gene manipulation: Molecular cloning of DNA or RNA fragments in bacterial and eukaryotic systems. Expression of recombinant proteins using bacterial, animal and plant vectors. Isolation of specific nucleic acid sequences. Generation of genomic and cDNA libraries in plasmid, phage, cosmid, BAC and YAC vectors. In vitro mutagenesis and deletion techniques, gene knock out in bacterial and eukaryotic organisms.
Sequencing: Protein sequencing methods, detection of post translation modification of proteins. DNA sequencing methods, strategies for genome sequencing and Next Generation DNA sequencing principles.
Gene expression: Methods for analysis of gene expression at RNA and protein level, large scale expression, such as micro array based techniques. DNA fingerprinting, RFLP, RAPD and AFLP techniques.
Recombinant vaccine and vaccine based on pathogen genome.
Unit 6: Animal Tissue Culture and Hybridoma Technology
Development of cell (tissue) and organ culture techniques. Nutrient requirements of mammalian cells. Media for culturing cells. Growth supplements. Primary cultures. Established cell lines. Stationary, Roller and Suspension culture techniques. Large-scale production of cells using bioreactors, microcarriers and perfusion techniques.
Characterisation and maintenance of cells, karyotyping, cryopreservation and revival. Detection of contaminants in cell cultures. Isolation and culture of lymphocytes. Application of cell and organ cultures.
Micromanipulation of cells. Cell cloning. Cell fusion and Somatic cell hybrids. Principles and methods of hybridoma technology. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies.
Unit 7: Embryo Transfer and Related Techniques
Induction of superovulation. Embryo collection and evaluation. Embryo splitting. Embryo sexing. Embryo transfer. Advantages of embryo transfer in farm animals.
In vitro fertilization. Embryo cloning. Nuclear transplantation. Production of transgenic animals and gene farming. Identification and transfer of gene influencing production and disease resistance.
6.5 VETERINARY MICROBIOLOGY
Unit 1: General Bacteriology
Milestones in the development of microbiology, Classification and nomenclature of bacteria. Structure, function and chemistry of bacterial nuclear apparatus. Cytoplasm, Intracellular granules, Cell wall, Cytoplasmic membrane, Mesosomes, Capsule, Flagella, fimbriae, Endospore, Protoplasts, Spheroplasts, L-forms, Involution forms. Bacterial stains, staining and microscopy. Growth and nutritional requirements of bacteria. Bacterial enzymes. Respiration in bacteria. Carbohydrate protein, fat and nucleic acid metabolism in bacteria. Reproduction and growth phase of bacteria. Effects of chemical and physical agents and antibiotics. Bacterial variations including transduction, transformation and conjugation. Bacterial vaccines and toxins.
The role of microbial toxins in the pathogenesis of diseases; Biochemical and biological characteristics of toxins produced by various bacteria. Toxin producing Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Properties and clinical conditions produced by different bacterial toxins.
Unit 2: Systematic Bacteriology
Systematic study of bacteria belonging to genera Borrelia, Leptospira, Campylobacter, Pseudomonas, Brucella, Bordetella, Escherichia, Citrobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Proteus, Vibrio, Haemophilus, Staphylococus, Streptococcus, Bacillus, Clostridium, Listeria, Erysipelothrix, Corynebacterium, Nocardia, Rickettsia, Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, Acholeplasma, Spiroplasma, Anaeroplasma and Thermoplasma, Rhodococcus, Mycobacterium and Neisseria.
Unit 3: General Virology
Historical development of virology. Evolution, classification and nomenclature of viruses. Biophysical and biochemical characteristics of viruses. Cultivation of viruses and their growth pattern in cell culture, embryonated eggs and experimental animals. Purification and concentration of viruses. Qualitative and quantitative assay of viruses. Viral replication. Virus-host cell relationships. Replication strategies of animal viruses and molecular pathogenesis for selected viral system. Latent, persistent and chronic viral infections. Study of genetic variability of animal viruses through use of monoclonal antibodies, autoimmunity, immunosuppression and viral mutation in persistence infections. General principles of laboratory diagnosis of viral diseases. Epidemiology and pathology of viral infections. Immune mechanism in viral diseases. Interference and interferon. Viral vaccines, point of action of antiviral molecules during the replication cycle of a virus and search for new antiviral compounds, viruses and gene therapy. Chemotherapy of viral infections.
Unit 4: Systematic Virology
Systematic study of RNA and DNA viruses in livestock and poultry with reference to antigenicity, cultivation, pathogenesis, epidemiology, diagnosis and immunity, RNA viruses: Retroviruses and lymphotropic viruses, Visna and Maedi, Arboviruses, Rotaviruses. Birnaviruses. Picornaviruses. Bunyaviruses. Cornoaviruses. Togaviruses, Paramyxoviruses, Orthomyxoviruses, Rhabdoviruses. Picornaviruses. Bunyaviruses. Arenaviruses. Arterioviruses. Caliciviruses. Filoviruses, DNA viruses: Poxviruses. Hepadnaviruses. Iridoviruses, Adenoviruses, Papovaviruses. Parvoviruses. Circoviruses. Unclassified viruses. Slow viruses - Scrapie.
Unit 5: Mycology
General characteristics of fungi. Classification and study of pathogenic fungi-Epidermophyton, Microsporum, Trichophyton, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus, Blastomyces, Coccidioides, Histoplasma, Candida, Rhinosporidum, Contaminating fungi, Rhizopus, Mucor and Penicillium. Fungi causing mastitis, abortion and mycotoxicosis.
Unit 6: Immunology
Historical Perspectives. Host-parasite relationships. Antigens. Types of antigens. Properties and specificity of antigens. Factor determining antigenicity. Haptens and carriers. Heterophile antigens. Adjuvants. Mechanisms of action, classification and their uses. Immunoglobulins – their classes and sub-classes, structure and function. Allotypes. Idiotypes. Genes coding for Igs. Generation of diversity. Monoclonal antibodies. Purification of antibodies. Theories of antibody formation. Lymphoid organs: primary, secondary and circulation of lymphocytes, cells involved in the immune response – B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, subsets and nature of receptors.
Macrophages, Dendritic reticular cells, Langerhan’s cells. Cellular interactions Cell-mediated immune responses. Mechanism of interaction of antigen and antibody. The complement system. Classical and alternate pathways. Serological reactions: agglutination, precipitation, neutralization, CFT, FAT, ELISA, DIE, RIA, etc, Immunological methods as an aid to diagnosis, blotting techniques like Northern, Western blotting, Major, Histocompatibility complex: organization.
Nature of antigens and MHC restriction. Hypersensitivity – immediate and delayed types, and mechanism of hypersensitivity. Mechanism of immunity, autoimmunity and immunological tolerance.
Unit 7: Molecular Cell Biology (Vaccine & Diagnostic Technology)
Role of biotechnology in diagnostics and vaccines, RNA electropherotyping. Probes - preparation of cDNA. Use of DNA probe in animal diseases diagnosis. Monoclonal antibodies. Application on monoclonal antibodies for diagnosis of animal diseases. Preparation of monoclonal antibodies. Nucleic acid hybridization. Modern trends in vaccines. Recombinant DNA vaccines and their probable use in animal diseases. Bioinformatic tools in microbial research, Biosafety, Biosecurity, GMP and GLP.
6.6 VETERINARY PATHOLOGY
Unit 1: Introduction, History and Etiology
Introduction, history and scope of pathology. Definitions. Etiology of the disease. Predisposing factors, intrinsic and extrinsic factors responsible for the disease. Physical agents, mechanical injuries. Heat, cold and decreased atmospheric pressure, light (photosensitization) UV light, microwaves, electricity, chemical agents-exogenous chemicals (toxin, poisons, drugs and food substances), endogenous chemicals (metabolites, cytolytic or inhibitory immune complexes, free radicles, oxidants)
Unit 2: Haemodynamics Derangements, Degeneration and Necrosis
Disturbances of circulation/haemodynamic derangements hyperaemia, ischaemia, haemorrhage, sludged blood, thrombosis, embolism, infarction, oedema and shock. Disturbances of cell metabolism – protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, pigment metabolism, pathological calcification / ossification. Apoptosis, necrosis, gangrene. Ultrastructural changes in cell organelles in haemodynamic derangements and cell metabolic disturbances.
Unit 3: Inflammation and Healing
Inflammation – definitions associated with inflammatory phenomenon, etiology of inflammation, cardinal signs, pathogenesis of inflammation, chemical mediators released from injured tissues and inflammatory cells. Cellular reponse in inflammation, structure and functions of cells associated with inflammation. Role of humoral and cell mediated defenses. Various classifications of inflammation. Healing, cellular regeneration capability of different body cells. Role of cells (macrophages, fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, endothelial cells), extracellular matrix components and growth factors in healing.
Unit 4: Immunopathology
Immunopathology – anibody and cells, immuno-competence of foetus and new-born. Immune mediated tissue injury, hypersensitivity reactions- anaphylaxis, Arthus reaction, cyototoxic antibody reaction, immune complex disease, delayed hypersensitivity to chemicals, immunodeficiency diseases, defective immuno-competence, autoimmune diseases.
Unit 5: Genetically Determined Diseases
Genetic abnormalities, aberrations of chromosomes, mosaicisi, chimerism, anomalies in sex chromosomes and it autosomal chromosomes. Pathological states determined by one or more genes, lethal genes.
Unit 6: Disturbances in Cell Growth and Oncology
Disturbance in cell growth – aplasia, hypoplasia, hyperplasia, atrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia. Neoplasms-growth, etiology, classification, morphology, and behaviour of the neoplasms, structure and biology of the tumor cell, tumor immunology, tissue response to tumors, spread of tumors, pathological features of various neoplasms.
Unit 7: Post-mortem Diagnosis and Histopathological Techniques
Post-mortem examination as a diagnostic tool. Post-mortem techniques for different species including poultry, post-mortem changes, lesions in various organs in different diseases, identification and interpretation of lesions, preparation of necropsy reports. Handling of necropsy in vetero-legal cases, collection, preservation and dispatch of materials for diagnosis. Fixation and processing of tissues for histopathology and histochemistry. Different staining techniques. Histochemistry and histoenzymology as diagnostic tools. Principles of electron microscopy, processing of tissue for scanning and transmission electron microscopy.
Unit 8: Clinical Pathology
Clinical laboratory examination of various biomaterials from different livestock species, complete blood counts, serum enzymology, bone marrow examination, erythrocytes, leucocytes and platelet disorders and their interpretations. Electrolyte and acid base analysis, altered electrolyte concentrations and their interpretations, fluid accumulation disorders, examination of effusions (chemistry and exfoliative cytology). Complete examination of urine, skin scrapings stools, CSF and milk for pathological constituents and interpretation of results.
Unit 9: Systemic Pathology
Pathology of cardiovascular, haemopoietic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, genital, nervous and musculoskeletal systems, endocrine glands, organ of special senses i.e, eye, ear, skin, appendages.
Unit 10: Pathology of Infectious Diseases
Pathology of bacterial, mycotic, viral, mycoplasmal, rickettsial, chlamydial and parasitic diseases. Diseases caused by prions.
Unit 11: Avian Pathology
Farm placements and building in relation to disease, management and nutrition in relation to disease. Biosecurity in the control of diseases. Stress and its effects. Omphalitis and yolk sac infection, Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis, infectious laryngotracheitis, viral arthritis, infectious bursal disease, egg drop syndrome, inclusion body hepatitis and hydropericardium syndrome, infectious stunting syndrome, swollen head syndrome, Marek’s disease, avian leucosis/sarcoma complex, salmonellosis, pasteurellosis, mycoplasmosis, chlamydiosis, colibacillosis, spirochaetosis, aspergillosis, thrush, mycotoxicosis, parasitic diseases – nematodes, cestodes and protozoa, nepherosis/nephritis syndrome, multi-etiology syndromes. Immunosuppression and conditions/diseases associated with it. Vaccinations against various diseases, their failures and remedies.
Unit 12: Nutritional and Production Pathology
Pathology of nutritional deficiency disease – protein, carbohydrate, mineral and vitamins. Concept of production diseases – pathology of milk fever, ketosis, magnesium tetany, rumen indigestion, nutritional haemoglobinuria.
Unit 13: Pathology of Toxicosis
Clinico-pathological features of toxicosis due to heavy meals, mycotoxins, insecticides, pesticides, toxic plants, chemicals and drugs.
Unit 14: Pathology of Diseases of Laboratory and Wild Animals
Etiopathology of common diseases of laboratory and wild animals.
07. VETERINARY AND ANIMAL SCIENCES-III
(7.1 Veterinary Medicine, 7.2 Veterinary Pharmacology & Toxicology, 7.3 Vety. Gynaecology & Obstetrics/Animal Reproduction, Gynaecology & Obstetrics, 7.4 Veterinary Surgery & Radiology/Veterinary Surgery, 7.5 Veterinary Anatomy/Veterinary Anatomy & Histology)
7.1 VETERINARY MEDICINE
Unit 1: General Medicine
Epidemiology and its ingredients. Definitions of diseases known as – infectious, contagious, sporadic, epizootic, enzootic, panzootic, exotic, zoonotic, etc. Meaning and purpose of segregation, isolation, quarantine, etc., role of occurrence, prevalence, incidence, morbidity rate, mortality rate, case fatality rate, mode of transmission, vectors, spread, economics, etc. in terms of epidemiology of diseases. General systemic states like – bacteremia, septicemia, pyemia, toxemia, hyperthermia, hypoglycemia, allergy, anaphylaxis, shock, dehydration, stress, sudden death, anasarca, anaemia, pica, etc.
Unit 2: Diagnosis of Animal Diseases
History taking. General clinical examination. Special clinical examination – electrocardiography, paracentesis, rumen fluid examination, haematology, blood biochemistry, urinalysis, ophthalmoscopy, otoscopy, endoscopy, ultrasonography, biopsies, etc.
Unit 3: Gastroenterology
Specific conditions of organs of gastrointestinal system with special emphasis to – simple/acid/alkaline indigestion, GI ulcers, choke, tympany, colic, impaction, traumatic reticulitis / peritonitis, abomasal displacement, ascites, jaundice, hepatitis, enteritis, gastritis, etc.
Unit 4: Diseases of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary System
Principles of circulatory failure, Acute heart failure, Congestive heart failure, Perpheral circulatory failure. Myocardial and valvular diseases. Epistaxis. Pulmonary congestion and oedema. Emphysema. Pneumonia. Pleurisy, URI Aspiration pneumonia.
Unit 5: Diseases of Urinary, Nervous, Musculoskeletal and Integumentary Systems
Nephrosis, Nephritis. Pyelonephritis. Cystitis. Urolithiasis. Uremia. Cerebral anoxia. Encephalitis. Encephalomalacia. Meningitis. Encephalomyelitis. Paralysis. Urticaria. Dermatitis. Photosensitisation. Seborrhoea. Conjunctivitis. Otitis. Kerato-conjunctivitis. Corneal ulcers. Eczema. Impetigo. Alopecia.
Unit 6 : Production and Deficiency Diseases
Metabolic profile test, milk fever, Downer’s cow syndrome, ketosis, hypomagnesaemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hypomagnesaemia, post-parturient haemoglobinuria, azoturia. Fat cow syndrome, rickets, osteomalacia, osteodystrophia fibrosa. Trace mineral and vitamin deficiency.
Unit 7 : Common toxicities
Sources, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, post-mortem findings, diagnosis and treatment of conditions occurring in the following classes of poisonings: Metal Corrosives/irritants. Plant poisonings. Water-borne toxicities. Pesticide poisonings. Insect bites and stings. Snake bite. Environmental pollution hazards. Radiation hazards and injuries.
Unit 8 : Infectious Diseases (Bacterial and Mycoplasmal)
Etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, post-mortem findings, diagnosis, treatment and control of the following diseases of livestock : Mastitis, Strangles. Caseous lymphadenitis in sheep and goats. Clostridial diseases. Ulcerative lymphangitis in horses & cattle. Listeriosis, Leptospirosis, Erysipelas, Collibacillosis, Salmonellosis, Pasteurellosis, Brucellosis, TB, JD, Actinomycosis, Actinobacillosis, Glanders and Mycoplasmal diseases.
Unit 9 : Infectious Diseases (Viral, Chlamydial, Rickettsial and Fungal)
Etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, postmortem findings, diagnosis, treatment and control of the following diseases of livestock: Hog cholera. African swine fever. Leucosis FMD, RP. PPR. BMC BSE. Bovine viral diarrhoea. Mucosal diseases. Bluetongue. Influenza. Maedi. Pulmonary adenomatosis. Rabies. Encephalomyelitis. Pseudorabies. Louping ill. Caprine arthritis, encephalitis, Scrapie, Visna, Contagious ecthyma. Pox, Papillomatosis, Distemper. Infectious canine hepatitis. Parvo virus enteritis. Feline panleucopenia. Anaplasmosis, Heart water diseases, Contagious opthalmia., Aspergillosis, Ring worm, Bursattee, Lymphangitis, Babesiosis, Theileriosis, Coccidiosis, Trypanosomosis, Toxoplasmosis.
Unit 10: Parasitic Diseases
Etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, post-mortem findings, diagnosis, treatment and control of the following diseases of livestock: Major conditions produced by nematode, cestode and trematode infestations. Major conditions produced by arthropod parasites.
Unit 11: Poultry Disease
Etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, post-mortem findings, diagnosis, treatment and control of the following diseases of poultry: Newcastle disease, IBD, ILT, mycoplasmosis, coccidiosis, salmonellosis, necrotic enteritis, malabsorption. leucosis. Marek’ disease, mycotoxicosis, avian encephalomyelitis. hydropericardium syndrome. avian influenza, psittacosis-ornithosis, TB, histomonosis, spirochaetosis, trichomonosis, etc., parasitic diseases of poultry.
Unit 12: Veterinary Jurisprudence and Ethics
Judicial procedure. Duties of veterinarian particularly as an expert evidence. Vetero-legal aspects of wounds. Vetero-legal aspect of death in general, due to diseases, drowning, near drowning, electrocution, lightening, etc. Post-mortem examination of a vetero-legal, cases. Collection and dispatch of materials for forensic science examination. Common offense against animals. Common frauds in dealing with livestock and livestock products. Animal Insurance. Identification of animal species for vetero-legal purposes. Determination of time since death. Examination of blood and semen stains. Blood grouping in animals and its vetero-legal significance. Veterinary ethics: Code of conduct, professional ethics and etiquette for veterinarian. Laws: Role of veterinarian. Legal enactment in IPC related to animals and veterinarians. Prevention of Cruelty to Animal Act, Indian Veterinary Council Act. Wild life (protection) Act. Glanders and Farcy Act, Livestock Importation Act. Dangerous Drug Act and Prisoning Act. Legal provisions related to animals, animal diseases and drugs.
Unit 13: Special Therapeutic Approaches
Veterinary fluid therapy with fluid, electrolyte, plasma expanders, packed cell transfusions, etc. Clinical assessment of their requirement and doses. Blood transfusion with blood groups in animals-their therapeutic significance. Blood matching methods. Oxygen therapy.
Unit 14: Prevention and Control of Diseases
General principles of control of diseases. Role of OIE in disease control. Internationally recongnised control methods of designated diseases. Prevention and control methods for national, area and herd based control programmes of diseases like TB, JD, rabies, brucellosis, HS, anthrax, BQ, mastitis, FMD, bluetongue, etc.
Unit 15: Common Diseases of Zoo, Laboratory Animals and Wildlife
Clinical signs, diagnosis and treatment of diseases of wildlife and zoo animals: Shock, stress, diseases of cardiovascular system, capture myopathy, metabolic and nutritional diseases, toxicosis by chemicals and plants, tuberculosis, paratuberculosis, pasteurellosis, anthrax, rabies, FMD, RP, Kyasanur forest diseases (KFD), surra, helminthiasis. Clinical symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of diseases of laboratory animals: Tyzzer’s diseases, salmonellosis, pasteurellosis, strepto and staphylococcosis, psedudomoniasis, corynibacteriosis, mycoplasmosis (MRM), herpesvirus infection, pox diseases, coccidiosis, toxoplasmosis, giardiasis, helminthic infection, dermatophytosis, scabies, dermatitis, metabolic and nutritional deficiencies. Management related diseases of mice, rat, guinen pig, hamster and rabbit.
7.2 VETERINARY PHARMACOLOGY & TOXICOLOGY
Unit 1: General Pharmacology
Development and Scope, branches of pharmacology, Terminology, Sources and nature of drugs. Pharmacopoeia and drug compendia. Drug Schedules. Factor modifying drug activity. Concepts of pharmacogenetics, pharmaco-genomics Gene based therapy, overview of indigenous medicinal plants its active principles in therapeutic use.
Pharmacodynamics: Drug structure activity relationship. Drug receptor interaction. Role of secondary messengers. Drug modulation via different types of channels. Characterisation of agonist, antagonists.
Pharamacokinetics: Principles, Drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion. Factors modifying drug kinetics. Kinetic constants. Different models, determination of kinetic parameters and application in rational dosage regimen.
Pharmacometrics: Drug discovery and development process. Multidimensional screening methods, bioassays. Determination of median doses – LD50, ED50, therapeutic indices. Types of dose response relationship.
Unit 2: Drugs Acting on Central Nervous System
Role of neurotransmitters in CNS. Sedatives, Hypnotics, General anaesthetics, Hypotheses and clinical stages of anaesthesia. Pre-and post-anesthetics, Molecular mechanism of action of inhalant and parenteral anesthetics. Anticonvulsants. Tranquilizers. Narcotic and non-narcotic analgesics and antipyretics. Drugs affecting behaviour. Drug dependence and addiction and abuses. CNS stimulants. Muscle relaxants. Local anaesthetics.
Unit 3: Drugs Acting on Humoral and Autonomic Nervous Systems
Neurohumoral transmission. Adrenergic and antiadrenergic drugs including adrenergic neuron blockers. Cholinergic and anticholinergic drugs. Purinergic and Adenosine receptors. Dopaminergic and antidopaminergic agents. Nitric oxide mediators. Neuromuscular and ganglion stimulants and ganglion blockers.
Unit 4: Drugs Acting on Cardio-vascular and Respiratory Systems
Drugs acting on heart and blood vessles. Antihypotensive and anti-arrhythmic agents. Blood coagulants and anti-coagulants. Heamatinics. Haemorrhagic shock and its treatment. Expectorants, antitussives. Cough sedatives. Bronchodilators. Mucolytic agents. Analeptics.
Unit 5: Drugs Acting on Digestive System
Stomachics. Antacids. Carminatives and antizymotics. Emetics and antemetics. Cathartics. Antidiarrhoeal agents. Antispasmodics. Pharmacology of rumen and rumenotoric drugs. Drugs acting on hepatobiliary system.
Unit 6: Drug acting on Urogenital System
General principles of electrolyte therapy. Drugs altering fluid balance. Diuretics and antidiuretics. Drugs acting on uterus (oxytocics and tocolytics). Therapy of infertility and improving conception and synchronization of oestrus.
Unit 7: Endocrine Pharmacology
Mode of action and synthesis of pituitary hormones. Therapeutics of non-pituitary gonadotropin, adrenocorticoids, sex hormones, insulin, thyroid hormones, antithyroid agents, calcitonin, parathormone.
Unit 8: Autacoids
Pharmacological effects and therapeutics of histamine, antihistaminic agents, 5-HT its antagonists, prostaglandins and leukotrienes, peptides and kinins, rennin and angiotensins. Platelet activators. Anti-inflammatory drugs.
Unit 9: Chemotherapy
General principles. Classification of antibiotics based on chemistry, mechanism of action, etc., Drug allergy, hypersensitivity, mechanism of resistance development. Veterinary drug residues and its impacts. Extra label usage of antibiotics. Withdrawal period for antibiotics. Antiseptics and Disinfectants.
Antibiotics: beta lactams (Penicillin, cephalosporins, etc.) protein synthesis inhibitors (aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, chloramphenicol and macrolide/lincosamides, Quinolones, nitrofurans, polypeptide and other miscellaneous and emerging antibiotics. Sulphonamides, thrimethoprim and derivatives. Antifungal, antitubercular, antiviral and antineoplastic drugs.
Anthelminitic: Antinematodal, anticestodal, antitrematodal drugs. Antiprotozoans, Anticoccidials. Drugs used for ectoparasite control.
Unit 10: Toxicology
Terminology. Classification of poisons. Toxicity rating. Principles of selective toxicity. Toxicodynamics. Toxicokinetics. Diagnosis and treatment of poisoning (anti-dotal and non-antidotal). Mechanism of detoxification. Poisons causing respiratory insufficiency. Toxicology of common inorganic compounds. Toxicity of metals, non-metals and metalloids. Poisonous plant-cyanogenic, nitrate and oxalate producers. Mycotoxins : aflatoxin, rubratoxin, ergot. Toxic ferns. Venoms from snakes, scorpions, toads, etc. and treatment.
Unit 11: Ecotoxicology
Toxicity of pesticides, fungicides, weedicides, fertilizers on biosphere. Chemical warfare agents and radiation hazards. Toxicity from food additives, preservatives. Statutory regulation on agrochemical formulation and their uses. Recent advances in evaluation of cytotoxicity, immunotoxicity, teratogenicity, mutagenicity, embroyotoxicity.
Unit 12: Miscellaneous Topics
Drugs promoting growth and production. Agents used for doping and restraining of wild animals. Euthanising agents. Drug control and regulation.
7.3. VETY. GYNAECOLOGY & OBSTETRICS/ANIMAL REPRODUCTION, GYNAECOLOGY & OBSTETRICS
Unit 1: Veterinary Gynaecology
Biology of sex. Development of female genitalia. Functional anatomy of female reproductive system of farm animals. Growth, puberty and sexual maturity. Reproductive cycles (oestrous cycle) in female farm animals. Oogenesis and folliculogenesis. Follicular dynamics and ovulation. Transport and survival of gametes, fertilization, cleavage, implantation and maternal recognition of pregnancy. Sex determination and differentiation, Development of foetus and foetal membranes. Period of embryo and period of fetus, Teratology of fetus, Placenta- classification and functions. Gestation and pregnancy diagnosis in farm animals.
Unit 2 : Reproductive Endocrinology
Reproductive hormones, classification, synthesis, chemical composition and mechanism of action. Hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, gonadotropic, gonadal, placental and pineal gland hormones. Prostaglandins, pheromones, growth factors and hormone antagonists and their significance in animal reproduction. Hormonal assays. Hormonal regulation of male and female reproduction. Clinical uses of hormones.
Unit 3 : Accidents during Gestation
Pregnancy, Pseudocyesis, Ectopic pregnancy, Abnormalities of fertilization and foetal development, Superfecundation and superfetation. Abortion – bacterial, viral, mycotic, protozoal, physical, toxic and miscellaneous causes, diagnosis and prevention, Dropsy of foetal membrane and foetus, Maceration, mummification, Pyometra, Antepartum vagino-cervical prolapse, Uterine torsion and displacement of uterus. Retained fetal membranes.
Unit 4 : Veterinary Obstetrics
Pelvis and pelvimetry. Parturition – Signs approaching parturition, initiation and stages of parturition, induction of parturition and postpartum period. Presentation, position and posture. Causes and forms of dystocia and its treatment. Epidural anaestheia. Obstetrical maneuvers including fetotomy and Caesarean section. Post-partum complications in domestic animals, retention of placenta, uterine proplapse, endometritis, metritis, septic metritis. Post parturient metabolic disorders.
Unit 5 : Andrology
Comparative anatomy of male reproductive system. Thermoregulation of testis and blood testis barrier, Growth, puberty and sexual maturity. Spermatogenesis including cycle of somniferous epithelium and spermatogenic wave. Sperm morphology and ultra-structure of spermatozoa, sperm transport, maturation and storage in male genital tract, Secretions of male reproductive tract including accessory glands and their role in reproduction, Sexual/mating behaviour. Training of young bulls for semen collection, Semen and its composition, biochemistry of semen and sperm metabolism, sperm abnormalities and its classification, sperm separation and spermatozoa karyotyping. Breeding soundness evaluation of bulls, testicular cytogram, routine semen analysis, advances in semen analysis techniques including fluorescent dyes.
Unit 6 : Male Infertility
Fertility, infertility and sterility in male domestic animals. Causes and forms of male infertility. Testicular hypoplasia, cryptorchid, testicular degeneration, orchitis, affections of epididymis, vas deference, penis, prepuce and accessory glands & their management, tumors of the male reproductive tract, nutritional infertility, Vices in the males. Libido problem and its management, fertility markers.
Evaluation of male for breeding soundness, reproductive health status. Effect of parental drugs and vaccines on semen quality.
Unit 7 : Frozen Semen Technology and Artificial Insemination
History and development of artificial insemination. Advantages and disadvantages of AI and frozen semen, selection of bulls for AI purpose. Management of breeding bulls, methods of semen collection in different domestic animals, semen evaluation including latest techniques for evaluation of motility and fertilization.
Ideal extenders, extenders for liquid semen. Preservation of semen at various temperatures. Processing and preservation of liquid semen. Extenders for frozen semen, principles and techniques of semen freezing. Cold shock and ultra-low temperature shock. Cryoprotectants. Semen additives. Evaluation of frozen semen. Transport and storage semen. Handling of frozen semen, Liquid nitrogen and its containers. Insemination techniques. Estrus and estrus detection tools, Planning and organization of semen bank.
Unit 8 : Reproductive Technology
Synchronization of oestrous cycle in domestic animals, control of ovulation. Embryo transfer technology – History, advantages and disadvantages, superovulation, collection, evaluation, preservation and transfer of oocytes / embryos.
History of in vitro maturation and fertilization. Recovery of oocytes in vitro and in vivo, maturation, fertilization, culture, evaluation, preservation and transfer of oocytes / embryos. Micromanipulation of embryos. Embryo splitting and cloning. Stem cells and production of transgenic animals. Sex determination and gene insertion. Establishment of laboratory for ETT, IVM, IVF and IVC.
Use of Ultrasonography, laparoscopy and ovum-pick technology in farm animals.
Unit 9 : Infertility in Cows and Buffaloes
Fertility, infertility and sterility. Fertility indices, Evaluation of herd fertility. Incidence and economic role of infertility, forms of infertility, congenital and hereditary defects, infectious diseases. Pathological conditions of ovary, oviduct, uterus, cervix and vulva. Management causes of infertility. Hormonal causes of infertility, anestrus, repeat breeding, cystic ovarian degeneration, sexual health control and reproductive health programmes. Breeding soundness examination of cows and buffaloes.
Unit 10 : Reproduction and Infertility in Ovine/Caprine
Puberty, sexual maturity, breeding season, oestrous cycle, Breeding and conception, gestation, parturition, peri-parturient and obstetrical complications. Synchronization of oestrous cycle. Embryo transfer. Causes of infertility and their management.
Unit 11 : Reproduction and Infertility in Swine
Oestrous cycle, synchronization of oestrous cycle, Hormonal control of reproduction. Various forms of infertility in swine and their management. Various obstetrical problems and their management.
Unit 12 : Equine Reproduction
Physiology and pathology of equine reproduction. Research techniques and methodology for the study of equine reproduction. Equine andrology. Reproductive behaviour and management of stallion. Semen collection, examination and artificial insemination. Pregnant mare behaviour . Application of modern reproductive techniques in equine reproduction. Equine infertility.
Unit 13 : Canine and Feline Reproduction
Functional anatomy of dog and cat reproductive system, oestrous cycle and endocrinology of oestrous cycle and detection of optimum breeding time. Exfoliative vaginal cytology. Methods of pregnancy diagnosis, contraception. Medical termination of pregnancy. Infertility in bitches, disorders of oestrous cycle, pseudopregnancy, pyometra, cystic endometrial hyperplasia, tumors of reproductive tract. Difficult whelping – types and methods of handling dystocia. Caesarean section. Ovarian hysterectomy. Peri-parturient complications. Semen collection, evaluation, techniques of artificial insemination, infertility in male including testicular tumors – cryptorchid, affections of prostate.
7.4 VETERINARY SURGERY & RADIOLOGY/VETERINARY SURGERY
Unit 1: General Surgery
Current concepts of inflammation and its management. Asepsis and antisepsis in surgery. Disinfection and sterilization. Surgical bacteriology. Pre-, Peri and post-operative considerations. Physiopathology of burns, trauma, surgical stress and shock. Haemorrhage, haemostasis and administration of whole blood, blood extracts and plasma substitute. Acid – base and electrolytes imbalance. Rehydration and fluid therapy. Tissue repair including its biochemical aspects. Principles of tissue and organ transplantation. Tissue transplantation immunity. Sutures and suture materials. Operation theatre management. General surgical affections viz.. abscess, cyst, haematoma, tumour, gangrene, sinus, fistula and hernia. Neurological examination, paralysis and its treatment. Surgical instrumentations. Care of critically ill patients. Cosmetic surgery. Skin grafting techniques in animals.
Unit 2 : Anaesthesia
History and instrumentation. Pre-anaesthetic considerations of patient. Selection of various anaesthetic and pre-anaesthetic agents and their effects on different body organs. Inhalant and non-inhalant anaesthetic agents including dissociative, neurolept and balanced anaesthesia and their administration in small and large animals. Monitoring of patient during anaesthesia. Anaesthetic emergencies and their management. Muscle relaxants. Local anaesthetic agents. Local and regional anaesthetic procedures. Anaesthesia for special surgical procedures and special disease conditions. Electronarcosis. Hypothermia. Acupuncture analgesia. Anaethesia and methods of capture of zoo animals. Therapeutic usage of local anaesthetic agents and techniques. Methods of artificial ventilation.
Unit 3 : Radiology
Production and quality of X-rays; exposure factors and formulation of technique chart. Basics of radiation physics. Interaction of particulate and non-particulate radiations with matter. Radiographic artifacts and their prevention. Radiographic quality and factors affecting it. Radiographic features of diseases of musculo-skeletal, digestive, urogenital, cardiovascular, respiratory and lymphatic system of small and large animals. Radiation hazards. Radiation biology including its mechanism of action and effects on various organ systems. Radiation protection. Radiological contrast agents and common contrast radiographic procedures. Principles of radiotherapy and physiotherapy. Invasive and non-invasive imaging modalities viz. echocardiography, computed tomography, scintigraphy, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography and subtraction angiography.
Unit 4 : Orthopaedics and Lameness
Physiological and biochemical considerations of bone. Osteogenesis and mineralization of bone. Bone research techniques. Circulation of long bones. Biomechanics of fractures. Etiology, classification and healing of fracture; factors affecting fracture healing. Complications of fractures and their management. Methods of internal and external fixations of fracture and factors governing selection of fixation methods. Effect of various internal fixation methods on physiology and blood circulation of bone. Bone grafts. Metallic and non-metallic materials in bone surgery and their biological behaviour. Surgical affection of vertebral column. Etiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of affections of bones and joints. Technique of arthroscopy. Lameness and allied surgical conditions of fore and hind limbs. Various foot diseases. Affections of tendons, ligaments and their management. Relationship between conformation of the limbs, foot and its axis to soundness. Soundness and examination of horse for soundness
Unit 5 : Surgery of Head and Neck Region
Etiology, diagnosis and surgical management of the affections of sinuses, horn, nasal and buccal cavity, teeth, tongue, salivary glands, larynx, pharynx, trachea and oesophagus. Surgical affections of eye lids, lacrimal apparatus, nictitating membrane, conjunctiva, cornea, sclera, chloroids, iris, retina, lens, optic nerve, aqueous and vitreous humours and other parts of eye and their management. Surgical affections and management of ear and guttural pouch.
Unit 6 : Thoracic Surgery
Various approaches for thoracic surgery in large and small animals. Physiological alterations following thoracotomy. Heart lung machine and its use in thoracic surgery. Different congenital and acquired surgical affections of thoracic wall and thoracic organs viz. lung, mediastinum, oesophagus, heart and diaphragm in large and small animals. Surgical diseases of the vascular and lymphatic systems.
Unit 7 : Abdominal and Pelvic Surgery
Different surgical approaches for abdomen. Hernia: etiology, pathophysiology and treatment. Various acquired and congenital surgical affections of abdominal organs viz. Traumatic reticulitis, abdomasal displacement, impaction of omasum, pyloric stenosis, gastric torsion, caecal dilation, intestinal obstruction, rectal and anal prolapse, and peritonitis. Colic in horse:- etiology, diagnosis and treatment. Affection of liver, spleen, kidney and urinary bladder their complications and surgical management. Urolithiasis, uraemia and their management. Surgery of male and female genital organs. Etiology, diagnosis and surgical management of the affections of udder, teat and tail.
7.5 VETERINARY ANATOMY/VETERINARY ANATOMY & HISTOLOGY
Unit 1: Comparative Osteology and Arthrology
Structure, chemical composition and classification of bones, Bones of appendicular and axial skeleton of ox as a type and their comparison with those of horse, dog, pig and poultry, classification and detailed study of different joints of the body. Study of various indices for estimating race, sex and age of different animals. Basics of biomechanics of the locomotor system, Radiography of normal and developing bones.
Unit 2: Comparative Splanchnology
Descriptive anatomy of various organs of digestive system and associated glands, respiratory system and associated glands and urinary system and associated glands of ox and their comparison with those of horse, dog, pig and poultry. Study of formation of thoracic, abdominal and pelvic cavities and their reflection. Complete study of various organs and associated glands of male and female genital systems, surgical sites for various operations and clinically significant areas for performing auscultation, percussion and for carrying out surgical procedures such as laryngotomy, oesophagotomy, gastrotomy, rumenotomy, cystotomy, urethrotomy, caesarian section, exploratory laparotomy, mammectomy, thoracotomy, thoracocentesis, etc.
Unit 3: Myology, Angiology, Neurology and Aesthesiology of Ox
Classification of muscle fibres, origin, insertion and relations of muscles of different body parts. Topographic anatomy of the vascular system comprising of heart, arteries, veins and lymphatics. Study of various components of central nervous system, peripheral nervous system and autonomic nervous system. Complete study of the gross anatomy of various sense organs. Study of different nerve blocks, intravenous sites and enucleation of eyeball.
Unit 4: Histological and Histochemical Techniques
Preparation of tissues for light microscopy using different fixatives, different staining methods for routine light microscopy, frozen sectioning techniques and staining methods for enzymes, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, pigments etc. Silver staining techniques for nervous tissue.
Unit 5: General and Systemic Histology and Ultrastructure
General: Light and ultra-structural details of animal cell, epithelial tissue, muscular tissue, connective tissue and nervous tissue.
Systemic: Light and ultrastructure of different organs of digestive system, respiratory, lymphoid and cardiovascular system, urogenital system, different sense organs and nervous system of ruminants with differential features among domestic animals.
Unit 6: Developmental Anatomy
Gametogenesis, fertilization, cleavage and gastrulation, development of foetal membranes and placenta in domestic animals, histogenesis of nervous system, sense organs, endocrine organs and cardiovascular system, embryonic development of digestive, respiratory, urogenital and musculoskeletal system.
Unit 7: Principles and Applications of Biomechanics
Biomechanics, its definition and scope with reference to anatomy and physiology of domestic animals and musculo-skeletal dynamics. Locomotion and clinical applications, biomechanics of cortical and trabecular bones, biomechanics of fracture fixation, instrumentation and techniques in locomotion and their application in lameness.
Unit 8: Avian Anatomy
Gross and microscopic features of different body systems of domestic fowl.
Unit 9: Neuroanatomy
Gross and microscopic anatomy of the brain and spinal cord, various cranial and spinal nerves along with their associated nuclei and ganglia, motor and sensory pathways, different ascending and descending tracts of brain and spinal cord and autonomic nervous system.
Unit 10: Endocrine Anatomy
Advanced gross and microscopic anatomy of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, thyroid, parathyroid, thymus, adrenal glands, islets of Langerhans, pineal body and other tissues associated with endocrine secretions.
Unit 11: Theory and Applications of Electron Microscope
Introduction and principles of electron microscopy, methods for transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy.
Unit 12: Histoenzymology and Immunocytochemistry
Classification of enzymes – principles of enzymes, histochemistry methods; Substrates –combination–coupling azo-dye methods –capture reagents, localization of enzymes and controls in enzyme histochemistry. Fluorescence microscopy in enzyme histochemistry, immunohistochemistry- principles and techniques.
Unit 13: Applied Embryology and Teratology
Principles of experimental embryology and teratology, factors affecting the developmental mechanisms of embryo. Use of organizer implants, chemical and hormonal preparations in the developmental models and available literature on teratogenic experimentation.
Unit 14: Functional Veterinary Anatomy
The relationship of structure to form and function, the relationship of structure for adaptation and behaviour and in relation to clinical conditions/ applications.
Unit 15: Gross Anatomy of Laboratory Animals
Study of different organs of digestive system of different laboratory animals, detailed study of urinary, male and female reproductive systems of different laboratory animals, complete study of respiratory system of different laboratory animals, study of organs of circulation and nervous system of different laboratory animals. Descriptive anatomy of endocrine glands of different laboratory animals.
08. DAIRY SCIENCE, DAIRY TECHNOLOGY & FOOD TECHNOLOGY
(8.1. Dairy Chemistry, 8.2 Food Technology, 8.3 Dairy Microbiology, 8.4 Dairy Technology)
8.1. DAIRY CHEMISTRY
Milk constituents, their normal contents and physical and chemical nature. Specific compositional differences among milk from various species; Variations in milk composition due to breed, feed, season, stage of lactation and mastitis; Colostrum and abnormal milks, physical properties of milk; Acid base equilibria, oxidation-reduction potential, density, viscosity, interfacial tension, freezing point, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, refractive index, milk buffer capacity, physical equilibria among milk salts; Effect of various treatments on salt equilibria; Salt balance and its importance in processing of milk; Water activity, and its effect on shelf life; Colloids, properties and colloidal stability of milk; Emulsions, foams and gels formation, their stability and importance in dairy processing.
Lactose – structure, isomers, physical, chemical and biochemical properties. Browning mechanisms. Estimation and biosynthesis. Lactose intolerance. Significance of carbohydrates in milk and milk products. Distribution of trace elements in milk and their technological and nutritional importance; Water soluble vitamins – molecular structure and their levels in milk and milk products, biological significance, and factors affecting their levels.
Levels, distribution, isolation and genetic polymorphism of different milk proteins; Casein micelles – structure, size distribution, stability and physico-chemical properties; Casein models. Amino acid composition and physico-chemical properties of different fractions of caseins; Whey process, denaturation of milk proteins as influenced by temperature, pH and additives; Biosynthesis, structure, function and physico-chemical properties of α-lactalbumin and ß-lactoglobulin, immunoglobulins, lysozyme, lactoferrins, lipoproteins and fat-globule membrane proteins and their importance; Milk protein allergenicity; Role in immune response; Chemistry of milk enzymes and their significance with reference to milk processing and milk products. Kinetics of chemical reactions and enzyme kinetics; Casein hydrolysate, co-precipitates, and whey protein concentrates; bioactive peptides. Functional properties of milk proteins and their modifications using enzymatic and physical treatments.
Milk lipids – classification, composition, structure and general physical and chemical properties. Auto-oxidation – definition, theories, factors affecting, prevention and measurement. Antioxidants – mechanism of reaction and estimation. Lipolysis. Fatty acids – profile, properties and affecting factors. Unsaponifiable matter. Cholesterol – structure, forms, importance and level in milk. Chemistry of phospholipids and their role in milk and milk products. Fat – soluble vitamins – chemistry, physiological functions, levels in milk, cream, butter and ghee. Biosynthesis of milk fat. CLA biosynthesis and its nutritional and health benefits.
Milk adulteration and detection methods; Estimation methods for antibiotics, pesticides, heavy metals, lactose, lactate, protein, total solid, fat, salt, vitamin C, calcium, phosphorous, iron, citric acid in milk and milk products. Estimation of vitamin A, total phospholipids and free fatty acids in ghee. Estimation of starch in food. Measurement of BOD and COD in dairy waste.
Cream – Size distribution of fat globules, creaming phenomenon, composition and properties of cream and dry cream. Chemistry of neutralization and ripening. Butter. Mechanism of churning during butter preparation. Desi and creamery butter composition, properties, microstructure, grading, standards and defects. Ghee-Compositional differences in ghee prepared by different methods and variations in ghee and butter oil, Analytical constants and factors affecting them. Differences in cow and buffalo ghee. Hydrolytic and oxidative deterioration of ghee, their causes and prevention. Adulteration of ghee and methods of detection. Ghee grading, Antioxidants: natural and synthetic. Physico-chemical characteristics of buttermilk and ghee residue.
Heat stability of milk as affected by various milk constituents and additives. Role of protein-protein interaction and age gelation of UHT milk. Physical and chemical changes during preparation of concentrated milk and subsequent storage. Compositional differences between condensed and evaporated milk. Dried milk; Structure and physico-chemical properties. Physical properties of instant powder, Infant food. Spoilage of milk powder and its control. Khoa : composition and changes during manufacture. Composition and changes during preparation of chhana and paneer.
Cheese : Composition and varietal differences. Chemistry of rennin action. Influence of acidity, renneting and heat on the process of cheese manufacture. Changes during manufacture and ripening. Role and mechanism of action of stabilizers and emulsifiers, rheological properties and defects of cheese. Milk clotting enzymes from different sources – microbial, animal and plant. Theories and metabolic pathways of fermentation. Dahi, yoghurt and Acidophilus Milk : Composition and specific differences, chemical changes during fermentation, flavour development. Composition of Lassi and buttermilk. Nutritional and therapeutic significance of fermented milk products.
Ice-cream : Composition and physical structure, changes during ageing, freezing, hardening and defects. Role and mechanism of stabilizers and emulsifiers. Kulfi: composition and differences with ice-cream.
Definition of quality, quality control and assurance. Standards, statutory and voluntary organization. PFA act, sampling, labelling, PFA and AGMARK, BIS, ISO9000 standards for milk products. Total quality management, sensory evaluation of milk and milk products. Calibration of glasswares (lactometer, butyrometer, milk pipette, thermometer) used in Quality control laboratory, legal requirements of packaging material and product information, nutrition labeling.
Spectroscopy – UV – Vis spectrophotometry, IR. Separation techniques : TLC, GLC, HPLC, Ion exchange, size exclusion, affinity chromatography, analytical sedimentation, sedimentation equilibrium, isopycnic ultracentrifugation. Ultrafiltration. Precipitation by salting out agents. Electrophoresis – PAGE, SDS-PAGE, Radio-tracers technique. Flame photometry and potentiometry (principle, various electrodes, electrometric measurements of pH, buffers).
8.2. FOOD TECHNOLOGY
Unit 1: Introductory Food Technology
Introduction to food technology, Food processing industries/institutions/food scientists of importance in India, Food attributes viz. colour, texture, flavour, nutritive value and consumer preferences, Causes of food spoilage, sources of microbial contamination of foods, food borne illnesses, water activity and its relation to spoilage of foods, Spoilage of processed products and their detection, Principles and methods of food preservation. Food fortification, Composition and related quality factors for processing. Methods of food preservation such as heat processing, pasteurization, canning, dehydration, freezing, freeze drying, fermentation, microwave, irradiation and chemical additives. Refrigerated and modified atmosphere storage. Aseptic preservation, hurdle technology, hydrostatic pressure technology and microwave processing. Use of non-thermal technologies (microfiltration, bacteriofugation, ultra high voltage electric fields, pulse electric fields, high pressure processing, irradiation, thermosonication), alternate-thermal technologies (ohmic heating, dielectric heating, infrared and induction heating) and biological technologies (antibacterial enzymes, bacteriocins, proteins and peptides) in food processing.
Unit 2: Technology of Foods of Plant Origin
Fruits and Vegetable Processing: Post harvest handling and storage of fresh fruits and vegetables. Preparation of fruits and vegetables for processing. Minimally processed products. Cold chain logistics. ZECC (Zero Energy Cool Chambers), CCSR (Charcoal cool storage Rooms) Thermal processing and process time evaluation for canned products, process optimization, aseptic canning, methods for canning of different fruits, and vegetables; Dehydration and associated quality changes during drying and storage of dehydrated products. Solar drying. Intermediate moisture foods. Preparation and utilization of fruits and vegetables juices in non-fermented/ fermented/ aerated beverages, health drinks. Membrane technology. Chemistry and manufacture of pectin, role in gel formation and products like jellies and marmalade.
Technology of preservatives, pickles, chutney’s and sauces. Nature and control of spoilage in these products, Re-structured fruits and vegetables, By products utilization of fruits and vegetable processing industry, Processing methods of frozen fruits and vegetables, IQF products, packaging, storage and thawing, Role of Pectinases. Tomato products such as juice, puree, paste, soup, sauce and ketchup, Other convenience foods from fruits and vegetables. Beverages, tea, cocoa and coffee processing. Medicinal and aromatic plants: their therapeutic values. Spice processing viz. cleaning, grading, drying, grinding, packaging and storage. Oleoresins and essential oils.
Food grain Processing: Structure, composition of different grains like wheat, rice, Barley, oat, maize and millets, Anti-nutritional factors in food grains and oilseeds, Milling of grains. Wheat flour/semolina and its use in traditional/non-traditional foods like breads, biscuits, cakes, doughnuts, buns, pasta goods, extruded, confectionary products, breakfast and snack foods. Rheology of wheat and rice flour, Preparation of vital wheat gluten and its utilization, Instant ready mixtures, Enzymes (amylases and proteases) in milling and baking, Milling and parboiling of rice; by-products of rice milling and their utilization, Processed products from rice, Pearling, malting, brewing and preparation of malted milk feeds from barley, Significance of β-glucans, Milling of oats and its processing into flakes, porridge and oatmeal, Wet and dry milling of corn, manufacture of corn flakes, corn syrup, corn starch, corn steep liquor and germ oil, Structure and composition of pulses and their importance in Indian diet. Milling and processing of pulses viz. germination, cooking, roasting, frying, canning and fermentation. Use in traditional products, protein concentrates and isolates. Modified starches and proteins. Oilseeds: edible oilseeds, composition and importance in India. Oilseed processing. Oil extraction and its processing, by-products of oil refining. Production, packaging and storage of vanaspati, peanut butter, protein concentrates, isolates and their use in high protein foods. Export of oilseed cakes. International market and consumer preferences for quality in cakes for use in textured vegetable proteins. Millets: composition, nutritional significance, structure and processing. Dairy analogues based on plant milk.
Unit 3: Technology of Foods of Animal Origin
Technology of Milk and Milk Products: Milk and Milk production in India. Importance of milk processing plants in the country. Handling and maintenance of dairy plant equipment. Dairy plant operations viz. receiving, separation, clarification, pasteurization, standardization, homogenization, sterilization, storage, transport and distribution of milk. Problems of milk supply in India. UHT, toned, humanized, fortified, reconstituted and flavoured milks. Technology of fermented milks. Milk products processing viz. cream, butter, ghee, cheese, condensed milk, evaporated milk, whole and skimmed milk powder, ice-cream, butter oil, khoa, channa, paneer and similar products. Judging and grading of milk products. Cheese spreads by spray and roller drying techniques. EMC (Enzyme modified cheese), Enzymes in dairy processing. Sanitization viz. selection and use of dairy cleaner and sanitizer. In plant cleaning system. Scope and functioning of milk supply schemes and various national and international organizations. Specifications and standards in milk processing industry. Dairy plant sanitation and waste disposal.
Technology of Meat / Fish / Poultry Products: Scope of meat, fish and poultry Processing industry in India, Chemistry and microscopic structure of meat tissue, Ante mortem inspection, Slaughter and dressing of various animals and poultry birds, Post mortem examination, Rigor mortis, Retails and wholesale cuts, Factors affecting meat quality. Curing, smoking, freezing, canning and dehydration of meat, poultry and their products. Sausage making. Microbial factors influencing keeping quality of meat. Processing and preservation of fish and its products. Handling, canning, smoking and freezing of fresh water fish and its products. Meat tenderization and role of enzymes in meat processing. Utilization of by-products. Zoonotic diseases. Structure and composition of egg and factors affecting quality. Quality measurement. Preservation of eggs using oil coating, refrigeration, thermo stabilization and antibiotics. Packing, storage and transportation of eggs. Technology of egg products viz. egg powder, albumen, flakes and calcium tablets. Industrial and food user physiological conditions and quality of fish products.
Unit 4: Food Quality Management
Objectives, importance and functions of quality control. Quality systems and tools used for quality assurance including control charts, acceptance and auditing inspections, critical control points, reliability, safety, recall and liability. The principles and practices of food plant sanitation. Food and hygiene regulations. Environment and waste management. Total quality management, good management practices, HACCP and codex in food. International and National food laws. US-FDA/ISO-9000 and FSSAI. Food adulteration, food safety. Sensory evaluation, panel screening, selection methods. Sensory and instrumental analysis quality control. Quality control of food at all stages and for packaging materials. Non-destructive food quality evaluation methods. Biosensors and their use in quality evaluation of food products. Aspects of food safety.
Unit 5: Food Engineering/Packaging and Labeling
Unit operations of food processing viz. grading, sorting, peeling and size reduction machineries for various unit operations, energy balance in food processing. Packaging materials viz. properties and testing procedures, packaging of fresh and processed foods. Shelf life studies. Recent trends in packaging, aseptic, modified atmosphere, vacuum and gas packaging, active and smart packaging, antimicrobial packaging, edible films and coatings, nanocomposite materials for food packaging. Nutritional labeling requirements of foods. Requirements and functions of containers. Principles of package design.
Unit 6: Food Microbiology & Biotechnology
Fermentation technology, fermented food products (animal and plant based), microbial spoilage of foods, bacterial growth curve, hurdle technology. Role of biotechnology in productivity of plants, livestock and microbes of improved nutrition and quality. Use of biotechnology in production of food additives viz. preservatives, colorants, flavours. Use of biotechnologically improved enzymes in food processing industry, biomass production using industrial wastes. Single cell proteins, Single cell oils, Food contaminants viz. aflatoxins. Food intoxication and infection. Consumer concerns about risks and values, Biotechnology and food safety.
Unit 7: Flavour Chemistry Technology
Flavour composition of foods/beverages (identification and quantitative analysis of the flavour precursors and their products, characterization of the staling reaction using stable isotopes). Flavour composition of foods/beverages in relation with maturation and microbial activity/or the processing conditions (e.g. fermented dairy products, beer, wine, honey, fruits). Analysis of odour-active compounds of food/beverages (Charm analysis). Synthesis of flavour by microorganisms and plant cells. Lipid derived flavours. Investigation of equilibrium of key flavour compounds that govern the flavour stability of beverages. Natural antioxidant constraints in spices. Role of microorganisms in flavour development. Flavor emulsions, flavour composites, essential oils and oleoresins.
Unit 8: Consumer Sciences/Food Product Development/Health Foods
Socio-cultural, psychological and economical consideration for food appearance, domestic and export marketing. Consumer trends and their impact on new product development. Product development viz. to conceive ideas, evaluation of ideas, developing ideas into products, test marketing and commercialization. Role of food in human nutrition. Nutritional disorders, natural contaminants and health hazards associated with foods. Diet therapy. Therapeutic / Engineered / Fabricated and Organic foods/ Nutraceutical and functional foods.
8.3 DAIRY MICROBIOLOGY
Microflora associated with milk and milk products and their importance. Morphological, natural, physiological, spoilage and pathogenic characteristics of commonly occurring microbes in milk and milk products; Newer approaches for classification of microorganisms; types of microbes in normal and mastitic milk and importance of somatic cell counts; Food poisoning, food infections, toxi-infections and other milk borne diseases; Emerging food borne pathogens associated with milk and milk products; Epidemiological studies using DNA fingerprinting techniques like RAPD, RFLP, DGGE, TGGE, Rep-PCR, etc. Sources of microbial contamination of raw milk and their relative importance in influencing quality of milk during production, collection, transportation and storage. Microbial and chemical changes in raw milk during chilling and refrigeration.
Bacteriological aspects of processing techniques like bactofugation, thermisation, pasteurization, sterilization, boiling. UHT, pulsed field treatment and membrane filtration of milk. Types of spoilages in heat-treated milks. Enumeration of heat resistant microbes. Germination and sporulation of bacterial spores; Prevention of post-processing contamination in heated milk. Identification of sources of contamination in heat treated milks. D, F and Z values for various microbes. Heat induced damage and repair in bacterial cells. Role of resuscitation in recovery of heat injured microbial cells; Bacteriological grading of raw and heat-treated milk. Microbiological spoilage aspects of thermally processed milks; Role of psychrotrophic, thermoduric, thermophilic bacteria and their metabolites in milk spoilage, biofilms.
Naturally occurring preservative systems in milk like LP system, Immunoglobulins, Lysozyme, Lactoferrin, etc. Preservation of milk and milk products by physical (irradiation) and chemical agents; Food grade Biopreservatives (GRAS), Bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria; Nisin and other antimicrobials produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB). Application of bacteriocins as food grade biopreservatives in enhancing shelf life of foods; Enhancing antimicrobial potentials of LAB by recombinant DNA technology and Genetic engineering; Residues of antibiotics, detergents, sanitizers, pesticides and aflatoxins in milk, mode of action on microbes and biological consequences – as well as their detection by newer approaches like Charm test, HPLC, ELISA and biosensor based techniques.
Microbiological quality of fat rich products (cream and butter); Frozen dairy products (ice-cream); Concentrated dairy products (evaporated and sweetened condensed milk) and Dried milks (roller and spray dried milks and infant foods); Factors influencing the microbiological quality of above products during their production, processing, handling, storage and distribution; Microbial defects associated with these products and their control; Microbiological safety in relation to potential pathogens and their public health significance; National and International microbiological standards for dairy products (BIS, ICMSF, Codex Alimentarius Standards).
Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) as starters: Types of starter cultures and their classification; Identification of LAB based on conventional and molecular techniques such as 16S rRNA sequencing. Ribotyping, PCR and DNA fingerprinting; Microbiology of starter cultures; Single and multiple strain cultures, and custom cultures; Associative growth of starter cultures; Concepts of starter growth and metabolism of lactose and citrate; Production of taste and aroma compounds by starters in fermented milks and milk products; Changes caused by starters in milk during growth; Modem trends in propagation, production and preservation of starter cultures; Production of starter concentrates; DVS starters: Judging of starter quality and activity; Starter defects; Starter failure; Intrinsic and extrinsic factors associated with starter failure; Bacteriophages of dairy starters and their impact on dairy industry; Prevention and control of starter failures.
Genetics and molecular biology of acid, flavour and therapeutic properties of LAB. Role of plasmids in their metabolism; Genetic manipulation of LAB for ameliorated performance; Food grade cloning and expression vectors; LAB as hosts for expression for heterologous proteins and development of food grade oral vaccines; LAB genome projects.
Dairy products as functional / health foods : LAB as probiotics in development of health foods; Selection criteria, colonization and functional properties; Antibacterial and therapeutic properties of probiotic cultures; Survival and stability of probiotics in health foods, gut and their tracking; Concept of probiotics and synbiotics; Genetic markers of probiotic functions and their application for mass screening; Genomics of probiotic Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria; Cloning and sequencing of probiotic genes; Sequence analysis; Blast, Clustal W and Clustal X. Pair-wise and multiple alignment; Homology and Phylogenetic tree / dendrograms; LAB as nutraceutical ingredients – a source of vitamin synthesis and exopolysaccharide production; Bioactive peptides and their role as nutraceuticals in dairy foods.
Role of starters in the preparation of yoghurt, koumiss, kefir, cultured buttermilk, and whey based beverages and other fermented products; Therapeutic properties of fermented foods; Microbial defects in these products, safety and their prevention and control; Microbiology of hard, semi-hard and soft varieties of cheese; Role of starter culture and non-starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) during preparation and ripening of cheese; Accelerated ripening of cheese; Production and use of microbial rennet substitutes; Recombinant chymosin and its application; Defects in cheese, Microbiological safety and their prevention and control.
Microbiological quality of indigenous dairy products, viz., khoa and chhana based sweets: Burfi, peda, rasogulla, gulabjamun, kheer, kulfi, shrikhand, paneer, dahi, lassi, ghee, etc. Sources of microbial contamination, their role in spoilage of these products and their microbiological safety, Prevention and control: Role of personnel and environmental hygiene at the level of production and processing; Need for microbiological standards for assessing the quality and safety of indigenous products; Concept of TQM and HACCP implementation in improvement of quality and safety of indigenous products; Current role of modified packaging for extending the shelf stability of indigenous dairy products, Antimicrobial packaging, controlled and modified atmosphere (CAP / MAP) based technologies.
Preparation of byproducts from dairy effluents by microbial fermentation; Cleaning and sanitization of equipments, machineries and other contact surfaces used in production and processing of milk and milk products; Types of detergents and their mechanisms of soil removal from the surfaces; Efficacy of sanitizers including gaseous disinfectants and evaluation of sanitizing disinfectant properties; Factors affecting activity of detergents and sanitizers; Built detergents, commercial detergents and combined detergent-sanitizers; Biological consequences of dairy waste disposal; Disposal of dairy effluents after microbial treatment; BOD and COD analysis in dairy effluents; Microbiological quality of air and water used in Dairy Plants.
Microbiological aspects of quality control and quality assurance in production of milk and milk products; Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) and the relevance and Sanitary Standard Operating Procedures (SSOP); Importance of Total Quality Management (TQM) in dairy industry; Application of HACCP programme in dairy industry; Safety concerns of bio-film formation on equipment surfaces and their control measures; Risk assessment approaches and role of productive microbiology in dairy foods; Conventional and current methods like impedance, ATP luminescence, pyruvate, etc. in detection of food pathogens; Application of immunological, PCR, Real time PCR, DNA probes, Microarrays (Biochips) and Biosensors, etc. for detection of food pathogens; Biosafety of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) / foods.
8.4 DAIRY TECHNOLOGY
Unit 1 : Market Milk
Status of dairy industry in India. Recent policy changes related to dairy sector (MMPO & WTO). Principles and practices for production of high quality milk. Methods of milk procurement, payment, quality assessment, detection of adulterants, handling and transportation of milk. Methods of raw milk preservation. Physical properties and chemical composition of milk of cow, buffalo and other species of milch animals; their importance in milk processing. Centrifugal separation, clarification and bactofugation and factors affecting their efficiency. Homogenization process and its implications in dairy processing; efficiency of homogenization and factors affecting it. Thermal processing of milk. Principles and methods of pasteurization and sterilization. UHT processing and aseptic packaging. Special milks. Principles of production, processing and marketing of toned, double toned, reconstituted, recombined, flavoured and filled milks.
Unit 2 : Fat Rich Dairy Products
Basic principles and recent concepts in production and processing of different types of cream, butter, margarine, fat spreads, butter oil and ghee. Fractionation of fat and its application. Health aspects of milk fat. Cholesterol reduced and cholesterol-free dairy products.
Unit 3 : Frozen Milk Products
Trends in the frozen milk products industry in India. Definition, classification and composition of ice-cream and other frozen desserts. Role of milk constituents and other ingredients, processing steps, packaging and storage methods on quality of ice-cream. Technological aspects of manufacture of plain, fruit, soft-serve, low fat and dietic ice-creams and novelties. Indigenous frozen desserts, kulfi, malai-ka-baraf etc.; their production techniques and quality. Distribution of frozen desserts. Newer ingredients for use in the ice-cream industry.
Unit 4 : Cheese and Fermented Milk Products
Status and scope of cheese industry. Fermented milk products – their nutritional and therapeutic value. Definition and classification of cheese and fermented milks. Milk in relation to cheese making. Manufacture of Cheddar, Gouda, Mozzarella and Swiss cheeses. Role of starter cultures in cheese quality. Types of rennet for cheese manufacture. Physical and chemical changes during cheese ripening. Manufacture of processed cheese, cheese spread and cheese foods. Mechanization of cheese-making process. Modern concepts in accelerated cheese ripening. Storage and defects. Production and storage of dahi, yoghurt, shrikhand, lassi and misti dohi. Probiotic dairy products.
Unit 5 : Concentrated and Dried Milk Products
Milk in relation to processing and manufacture of concentrated and dry milks. Principles and methods of manufacture, storage and defects in sweetened condensed milk. Evaporated milk. UHT sterilized concentrated milk. Whole milk powder. Skim milk powder, high-fat powders, and ice-cream powder. Instantization of milk powder. Newer technologies and formulations for infant foods and weaning foods, malted milk and malted milk foods.
Unit 6 : Indigenous Milk Products
Safety aspects of milk with reference to Status and role of traditional dairy products in Indian dairy industry and economy. Characteristics of various traditional products, their prospects and constraints. Methods of production; physico-chemical changes during manufacture; quality attributes, shelf-life, preservation and packaging. Process innovations relating to khoa, chhana, paneer, rabri, kheer, khoa and chhana-based sweets.
Unit 7 : Utilization of Milk Byproducts
Status, availability and utilization of dairy byproducts. Associated economic and pollution problems. Manufacture of casein, sodium and calcium-caseinates, edible casein, hydrolysates, coprecipitates, whey protein concentrates, whey beverages, whey syrups and lactose. Use of buttermilk. Development / formulation of new products based on dairy byproducts.
Unit 8 : Packaging of Milk and Milk Products
Present status and scope. Role of packaging and package design considerations. Evaluation of packaging materials and package performance. Packaging materials and systems for liquid, concentrated, dried, frozen and fat-rich dairy products. Special packaging methods such as vacuum, shrink and aseptic packaging. Modified atmosphere packaging. Package standards, regulations and quality control.
Unit 9 : Cleaning and Sanitation
Properties of important dairy detergents and sanitizers. Choice of detergents and sanitizers guiding principles and limiting factors. Basic principles in formulating the cleaning and sanitizing procedures for dairy equipments. Automation in cleaning and sanitization processes including CIP. Quality of water in detergency.
Unit 10 : Advances in Dairy Technology
Radiation preservation of milk and milk products. Theory and application of microwave heating, ohmic heating and high pressure processing. Immobilization of enzymes and their use in dairy and food industry. Theory of ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, nanofiltration and microfiltration techniques. Selection and types of membranes. Application of membrane technology in dairy and food industry. Fouling, cleaning and sanitization of membranes. Emulsions, foams and gels. Electrodialysis and ion exchange in dairy applications. Processing of cereals and legumes for incorporation in milk and milk products. Use of milk solids in bakery and confectionery products. Application of biotechnology in dairy industry.
Unit 11 : Legal and Quality Aspects for Milk and Milk Products
Safety aspects of milk with reference to mycotoxins, antibiotics, pesticides, weedicides and heavy metals. PFA, BIS and Agmark standards for milk and milk products. Quality systems such as HACCP, ISO certification, etc.
09. AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY
(9.1 Farm Machinery and Power Engineering, 9.2 Soil and Water Conservation Engineering/Soil and Water Engineering, 9.3 Agricultural Processing and Food Engineering, 9.4 Renewable
Energy Engineering, 9.5 Irrigation Water Management Engineering/Irrigation & Drainage Engineering)
Unit 1: Farm Mechanization and Equipment
Status and scope of farm mechanization in India. Power availability on the farm. Identification of need based priorities of mechanization for various cropping systems. Hand tools used for different kinds of farm work, design considerations and materials for construction. Functional requirements, principles of working, construction, design, operation and management of animal-and power-operated equipment for tillage, land development, sowing, planting, fertilizer application, inter-cultivation, mowing, chaff cutting and baling. Special equipment for crops such as sugarcane, cotton, groundnut, and potato.
Unit 2: Design of Farm Machinery Components
Design and selection of machinery elements: gear, pulleys, chains and sprockets, belts and simple clutches. Dynamic balancing and stability of farm machines. Force analysis on agricultural tools and implements. Pull, draft, unit draft and energy calculations for animal and power operated equipment. Machinery systems design.
Unit 3: Testing and Management of Farm Machinery
Calibration of seed drills, planters, sprayers and fertilizer applicators. Performance and losses in harvesting and threshing. Calculations of field capacity, efficiency and rate of seed, fertilizer and chemicals applicators, threshers, harvesters and chaff cutters. Methods of testing of tillage equipment, seed-drills, seeders, planters, sprayers, threshers, and combines. Farm machinery selection for different soils, crops and operations. Cost analysis of implements and operations. Estimation of power-energy requirements. Reliability of farm machinery.
Unit 4: Engines and Tractor Systems
Engineering thermodynamics. Various systems of spark and compression ignition engines. Operations, adjustment and trouble shooting on the working of the systems. Calculations on horse power, torque, speed, firing arrangement and intervals, heat load and power transmission from piston to the fly wheel. Tractor transmission, Types of clutch, gear trains, differential and final drives. Tractor chassis mechanics. Tractor power outlets. Mechanical and power steering systems. Hydraulics and hitching systems, ADDC. Tractor performance tests. Maintenance schedules of tractors and power tillers. Recent trends in tractor design.
Unit 5: Ergonomics and Safety
Anthropometry in equipment design, physiological cost and effect of work on physiological responses, fatigue and comfort; ergonomics in design of farm tools; safety aspects of agricultural machinery; effect of noise and vibration on work performance; chemical hazards and control measures; operator’s protective gadgets; 125 design of tractor controls viz., hand and foot controls, visual range and limitations, seat design, etc.
Unit 6: Soil Dynamics in Tillage and Traction
Dynamic properties of soil and their measurements; stress-strain relationships; theories of soil failure, mechanics of tillage tools; design parameters and performance of tillage tools. Introduction to traction devices, tyre function and size, their selection, mechanics of traction devices, traction theories, slippage and sinkage of wheels, evaluation and prediction of traction performance; soil compaction - causes and methods for alleviating the effect on soil and crop responses.
Unit 7: Manufacturing Technology
Specification of materials, surface roughness, production drawing, computer aided drawing heat treatment, workshop practices applied in prototype production, common tools and press operations, metal cutting and machining, jigs, fixtures and gauges, casting and die-casting processes; basic joining processes, welding processes, testing of joints and metallurgy.
Unit 8: Instrumentation and Measurement Techniques
Mechanical measurements, sensors and transducers, application of electrical strain gauges, signal transmission and processing, dynamic measurements; measurement of temperature, pressure, strain, force, torque, power vibrations etc.; determination of calorific value, fluid flow rates etc; signal conditioning and monitoring, data acquisition and storage.
Unit 9: Energy in Agriculture
Conventional and renewable energy sources in agriculture; solar radiation and its measurement; characteristics of solar spectrum; solar energy collection, storage and applications; solar photovoltaic conversion and SPV powered systems. Types of wind mills and their applications; thermo-chemical conversion of biomass, direct combustion, Pyrolysis and gasification, chemical conversion processes, carbonization, briquetting, pelletization and densification of biomass; bioconversion into alcohols, methyl and ethyl esters, organic acids, solvents of amino acids; types of biogas plants, biogas properties, uses and distribution, alternate fuels for IC engines. Energy requirement in agricultural production systems, energy ratio and specific energy value, inflow and outflow of energy in unit agricultural operation, energy audit, accounting and analysis.
Unit 1: Groundwater Development, Wells and Pumps
Water resources of India. Present status of development and utilization of water resources of India and scope for additional use. Irrigation potential and contribution of groundwater, scope of groundwater development. Application of groundwater models for groundwater development and management. Aquifer types and parameters. Principles of groundwater flow, interaction between surface and groundwater, natural and artificial groundwater recharge. Salt water intrusion in inland and coastal aquifers. Groundwater exploration techniques. Hydraulics of fully and partially penetrating wells. Design, construction and development of irrigation wells. Water lifts, pumps and prime movers, well and pumps characteristics, performance evaluation and selection of pumps. Energy requirement in groundwater pumping. Design of centrifugal pumps. Groundwater pollution. Conjunctive use of surface and groundwater.
Unit 2: Open Channel Hydraulics
Hydraulics of open channel flow, energy and momentum principles, specific energy, Hydraulic jump, classification and its use as energy dissipater. Design of different types of irrigation channels. Irrigation water measurement: using velocity area method, water meters, weirs, notches, flumes, orifices etc. Water conveyance and control. Conveyance losses and lining of irrigation channels. Irrigation water delivery and distribution.
Unit 3: Soil, Plant, Water and Atmosphere Relationship
Soil physical characteristics influencing irrigation. Soil moisture characteristics, field capacity, permanent wilting point, plant available water and extractable water. Soil irrigability classifications, factors affecting water storage profile. Determination of soil water content, computation of soil water depletion, soil water potential and its components, hydraulic head. Field water budget: water gains and water losses from soil, deep percolation beyond root zone, capillary rise. Evapotranspiration (ET) and irrigation requirement, critical stages of crop growth in relation to irrigation. Irrigation scheduling. Plant water relations, concept of plant water potential. Water movement through soil plant atmosphere system. Uptake and transport of water by roots. Management strategies to improve crop productivity under limited water supplies. Contingent crop plans and other strategies for aberrant weather conditions. Cropping patterns, alternate land use and crop diversification in rainfed regions.
Unit 4: Watershed Hydrology
Hydrologic cycle, precipitation, infiltration and surface runoff. Measurement and analysis of hydrologic data. Intensity duration frequency analysis. Hortonian and saturation overland flow theories, partial source area concept of surface runoff generation. Rainfall and run off relationships, stream gauging and runoff measurement. Different methods of surface runoff estimation, hydrographs, S-hydrograph, IUH, Synthetic hydrograph, unit hydrograph theory and its application. Concept of hydraulic flood routing: channel and reservoir routing.
Unit 5: Soil and Water Conservation
Soil erosion and types of erosion. Quantitative soil loss estimation, universal soil loss equation and its subsequent modifications. In-situ measurement of soil loss. Field practices in controlling erosion by water and wind. Soil and Water conservation structures and their design. Gully control: vegetative measures, temporary, semi-permanent and permanent structures for gully control and reclamation and their design. Design and construction of farm pond and reservoir. Seepage theory. Design of earthen dams and retaining walls, stability analysis on slopes. Application of RS and GIS in soil and water conservation.
Unit 6: Watershed Management
Watershed concept, Identification and characterization of watersheds. Surveying: topographic, reconnaissance. Soil types and depth properties. Soil maps and their scales. Meteorological observations, monitoring, reclamation and conservation of agricultural and forest watersheds, hill slopes and ravines. Hydrological and geomorphological characteristics of watersheds. Land capability and irrigability classification and soil maps. Principles of watershed management. Development of watershed management plans, its feasibility and economic evaluation. Land levelling and grading, Criteria for land levelling, design methods. Machineries and equipments for land levelling.
Unit 7: Irrigation Water Management
History of irrigation in India. Management of irrigation water. Major irrigation projects in India. Crop water requirements. Soil water depletion, plant indices and climatic parameters. Methods of irrigation, surface methods, overhead methods, Pressurized irrigation system such as drip and sprinkler irrigation. Merits and demerits of various methods. Hydraulics of furrow, check basin and border irrigation, Hydraulics and design of pressurized irrigation systems. Irrigation efficiency and economics of different irrigation systems. Agronomic considerations in the design and operation of irrigation projects, characteristics of irrigation and farming systems affecting irrigation management. Irrigation strategies under different situation of water availability, optimum crop plans and cropping patterns in canal command areas. Quality of irrigation water and irrigation with poor quality water. On farm water management, socio-economic aspects of on farm water management.
Unit 8: Management of Degraded, Waterlogged and Other Problematic Soils and Water
Problem soils and their distribution in India. Excess salt and salt tolerant crops. Hydrological imbalances and their corrective measures. Concept of critical water table depths for crop growth. Contribution of shallow water table to crop water requirements. Management strategies for flood prone areas and crop calendar for flood affected areas. Crop production and alternate use of problematic soils. Agricultural field drainage, drainage techniques and theory of flow in saturated soil. Flow net theory and its application. Drainage investigations. Drainage characteristics of various type of soils. Water table contour maps and isobaths maps. Drainage coefficient. Design and installation of surface and subsurface drainage system. Interceptor and relief drains and their design. Drain pipe and accessories. Drainage requirements of crops. Drainage in relation to salinity and water table control. Bio-drainage. Reclamation of ravine, waterlogged, swampy areas and polders. Salt-affected soils and their reclamation. Command area development organizational structures and activities. Irrigation water users association concept and responsibilities. Environmental considerations in land and water resources management.
Unit 1: Engineering Properties and Quality of Biomaterials
Uniqueness of bio-materials, Importance of engineering properties of biological materials; physical characteristics viz. shape, size, volume, density, porosity, surface areas, Frictional characteristics viz., rolling resistance, angle of repose. Properties of bulk particulate solids viz. specific surface area, mean diameter, flow rate. Aerodynamics characteristics viz. drag coefficient and terminal velocity. Pressure drop through packed beds. Thermal properties viz. specific heat, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity. Dielectric properties viz. dielectric and microwave radiation, dielectric constant, energy absorption, heating. Optical properties and transmittance and reflectance. Rheological properties and stress-strain-time relationship, rheological models, visco-elasticity, Hertz’s theory of contact stresses. Food Quality and BIS specifications for quality of food materials, milling quality analysis, cooking and baking qualities. Organoleptic and sensory evaluation of product quality. Determination of protein, oil content, carbohydrates, colour, hardness, texture, nutritive value, bio- availability and microbial loads, non-destructive quality evaluation techniques. Measurement techniques and instruments for food quality determination, destructive and non-destructive quality evaluation, UV VIS NIR spectroscopy, X-ray, CT, NMR, machine vision. Maturity, ripening stages and indices of fruits and vegetables.
Unit 2: Heat and Mass Transfer
Basic laws of thermodynamics, thermodynamic properties and processes, energy equations, heat, work, heat engine, heat pump, refrigeration and steam tables. EMC, sorption and desorption isotherms, water activity and psychrometry. Modes of heat transfer, heat exchanger. Mass transfer and mass-heat-momentum transfer analogies. Fluid statics, fluid dynamics, continuity equation and Bernoulli’s theorem. Dimensional analysis and simulation. Simulation models and mathematical modeling. Finite difference analysis, Finite element analysis.
Unit 3: Post Harvest Unit Operations
Grading, cleaning, washing, sorting, shelling, dehusking, decortication, milling, polishing, pearling, drying (evaporative, osmotic and freeze drying), pasteurization and sterilization of liquid foods, kinetics of microbial death, size reduction, cryogenic grinding, granulation, crystallization, membrane separation processes viz. micro filtration, ultra-filtration, nano-filtration, reverse osmosis; Evaporation, Distillation, Mixing, coagulation, mechanical separation processes, viz. sedimentation, clarification filtration, pressing, expelling, leaching, extraction, pelleting, extrusion and industrial fermentation and processing.
Unit 4: Process Technology and Machinery
Pre-milling/ conditioning treatments. Process technology and machinery for cereals, pulses, oil seeds, fruits, vegetables, flowers, spices, condiments, plantation crops, animal products, sea-foods, fiber crops, animal feed, natural resins and gums. Bioprocess engineering, enzyme reaction kinetics, Industrial fermentation and processing, down-stream processing, bio-separation. Minimal processing of fruits and vegetables, high pressure processing, ohmic heating, ultraviolet light, pulsed electric field, pulsed light field, micro and nanoencapsulation of food ingredients, Food nanotechnology. Seed processing and technology, Agricultural by-products/residue utilization, Waste disposal of food processing plants, different methods and equipment.
Unit 5: Design of Processing Machinery
Design of grain cleaners, graders, dryers, parboiling plants, size reduction machines, bioreactors, fermenters, centrifuges, cyclone separator, heat-exchanger, evaporators, filters, extrusion cookers. Computer aided design and analysis of machines and machine components. Materials, manufacturing processes, design of elements and selection of standard parts viz. pulley, chains, sprockets, bearings, belts, fasteners, hydraulic components, pipes, hoses.
Unit 6: Material Handling, Packaging and Transport
Bulk conveying equipments, viz. belt conveyors, screw/auger conveyors, bucket elevators and drag/chain conveyors. Estimation of energy requirement and capacity, damage to products during mechanical handling. Operation and maintenance of conveying equipment. Packaging material characteristics and selection. Packaging techniques and equipment for liquid, powder and granular materials, and horticultural produce. Transportation of agro-produce by bullock-carts, trailers, trucks, rail wagons and containers. Cold chain design and operation. Safety standards in handling, packaging and transport of agricultural produce.
Unit 7: Storage Engineering
Storage environment and its interaction with stored product. Factors/parameters influencing the shelf life of the stored product, climatograph and deterioration index. Modeling of metabolic activities and predication of storage life, quality deterioration mechanisms and their control. Storage practices (including fumigation) for food grains. Design of bulk storage and aeration system. Analysis of heat, moisture and gas transfer in bulk storage structures. Bag storage structures, their design and management. Storage of perishables in ventilated, refrigerated, controlled and modified atmosphere storage systems and their design, smart storage system. Quality analysis of stored produce.
Unit 8: Process Plant Design
Plant design concepts and general design considerations, plant location, product and process design, process flow charts, equipment selection, plant layout. Design and selection of machinery for handling utilities like water, steam, fuel etc. and disposal of effluents and residues.
Unit 9: Instrumentation and Process Control
Static and dynamic characteristics of instruments, Transducers elements, intermediate elements, indicating and recording elements. Measurement of motion, force, torque, power, temperature, humidity, pressure and flow. Physical and chemical sensors, biosensors, Fuzzy logic, neural networks and control. Monitoring of plant parameters through Internet, Programmable logic controller, Data loggers, Data Acquisition Systems (DAS). Introduction to Direct Digital Control (DDC), Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Systems (SCADA), and Virtual Instrumentation.
Unit 10 : Agri-Project Planning and Management
Project development. market survey and time motion analysis. Selection of equipment, technology option, techno - economic feasibility. processing in production catchment. Product and process design, PERT, CPM, transport model, simplex, linear and dynamic programming, operation log book. Material balance and efficiency analysis, performance testing, performance indices, energy requirement and consumption. Marketing of agricultural products, market positioning. BIS/ FSSAI/ ISO standards/ guidelines on best practices, equipment and their design and operation for handling, processing and storage of food/feed.
For 9.4 and 9.5, the syllabus would be the same as covered under 9.1 to 9.3 above
10. HOME SCIENCE (Currently renamed as Community Science)
(10. 1 Family Resource Management, 10.2 Textile and Apparel Designing, 10.3 Human Development and Family Studies/Human Development, 10.4 Foods and Nutrition/Human Nutrition, 10.5 Home Science Extension and Communication Management)
10.1 Family Resource Management
Family Resource Management: Interdisciplinary nature of management and systems approach to family management. Philosophy and concepts of management, goal types and goal setting and value types. Sources of learning values and their importance to family Standards – type and relationship with values and goals. Process of management : planning, controlling, evaluating, organizing and their application to resources use and resources development. Decision making in use and development of resources. Decision types. Application of management process and energy for work simplification. Application of Mudells classes of change in household work and agricultural task.
Art Principles and Interior Enrichment : Importance of interior enrichment. Elements and principles of art and their application to interior decoration. Selection and making of accessories for homes, Flower arrangement. Importance of colour in home, colour theories and schemes. Importance of natural and artificial light in homes. Selection, care and maintenance of Home Furnishings: Floor coverings, wall and window treatments
Housing and Space Designing: Identifying family housing needs. Selection of site. Principles of house planning: orientation, space requirements for various activities and room layout. Building materials, their characteristics, selection and suitability for low cost rural and urban housing, Estimating costs of building a house. Advantages of owning and renting. Green building design evaluation system – GRIHA and LEED. Energy Conservation Building Codes (ECBC) launched by BEE.
Household Energy and Equipments : Household energy forms : sources, fuels, and their classification. Energy crisis, its causes and implications for energy management in homes. National efforts for energy and environmental conservation Equipments, tools and accessories for rural and urban houses, their selection, maintenance and care. Base materials, finishes, insulation materials and methods of forming utensils. Modular Kitchen. Low cost simple equipments – hay box, water filter, solar cookers etc.
Family Finance and Consumer Education : Family income – types, sources and contributors Financial planning guidelines for budgeting. Engel’s law, expenditure, account keeping, investment; and savings. Credit sources, advantages, disadvantages, selection and repayments. Consumer problems - buying problems, adulteration and substandard goods, Public distribution system, Consumer rights and responsibilities and consumer protection measures, Consumer organization and their roles.
Entrepreneurship Management: Scope of enterprise. Sources of information for project proposals and type of information needed. Role of government and private organizations in financing.
Markets and Marketing: Types of markets, their functions and pricing. Marketing information systems, Sales management and product promotion.
Ergonomics: Significance and scope of ergonomics. Man, Machine and Environment System and interactions. Anthropometry and its application.
10.2 Textile and Apparel Designing
Clothing Construction and Pattern Making: Methods of developing patterns – flat, draping and drafting. Application of special sewing techniques in dress designing. Figure irregularities and special problems with reference to apparel designing. Evaluation of finished garments . Commercial processes in apparel industry. Factors influencing fashion movement. Fashion forecasting. Understanding consumer demands. Consumer decision processes. Socio-psychological aspects of clothing. Traditional costumes, textiles and embroideries of India and their influence on modern trends. Costumes of world.
Fibre Science: Textile chemistry – polymerization, bonding, reactive groups. Manufacture/ processing, structure and physical, chemical and biological properties of cotton, silk,wool and linen, rayon and synthetics, Bleaches – types and their commercial application. Special finishes applied to different fibres such as wash-n-wear, water-proof, water repellent, shrink proof, durable press, carbonizing for p/c blends. Quantitative estimation of blends and mixtures. Water, detergents – types and their influence on fabric performance. Textile auxiliaries.
Dyeing and Printing: Study of dyes and pigments – composition, properties, advantages and disadvantages. Advanced dyeing and printing methods.
Textile and Apparel Quality Analysis: Importance of quality testing in textiles and apparel. Role of textile testing standards and methods. Fibre, yarn and fabric testing equipment and methods. Quality standards, specifications and accepted quality levels for apparel production.
Woven and Knitted Structures: Analysis of textile designs, Application of art principles in textile and clothing. Role of elements of art in designing. Classification and characteristics of yarns. Methods of fabric construction. Woven – special twills leno, double cloth, dobby, jacquard, warp and weft figuring, terry pile weaving, warp and circular knitting. Cloth defects and faulty merchandizing. Textile designing centres and their function. Computer aided textile and apparel designing.
Textile and Apparel Industry: Role of textile industry in Indian economy. Status of textile industry in the last decade with reference to cotton, rayon, jute, silk, wool, garments and hosiery. Domestic and international consumption. Export and import policies of textiles and garments. Five Year Plans and their influence on textile and clothing related policies. Associations and research organizations related to textiles, garments, hosiery and consumer. Sales promotion techniques for textiles and garments. Consumer education and protection.
10.3 Human Development and Family Studies
Lifespan Development: Major factors influence human growth and development. Principles of human growth and development. Analysis of significant areas of development. Physical, social, intellectual and emotional development during late childhood and their characteristic. Physical, moral, social, emotional and intellectual development during adolescence. Adulthood and old age, psychological, economic and social problems and rehabilitation of the aged. National and community service for the aged. Death and bereavement.
Theories of Human Development: Meaning and significance of child development theories. Psychoanalytic theories of Freud, Alder, Jung and the Neo Freudians-Karen Horney, Sullivan, and Erech Fromm Erikson’s stages of psycho-social development. Pieget’s theory of cognitive development. Language development theory of Chomsky and learning theories of Paviov Skinner, Thorndike, Watson and Gestalt psychology. Theories of Heinz Werner and Kohlberg Personality theories of Allport, Murray and Lewin’s Field theory.
Early Childhood Education: History of early childhood education. Modern education, Historical review of major philosophies of early thinkers like Locke, Owan, Rousseau, Pestallozzi, Froebel and Montessori, Gandhi’s basic education and contributions of Giju Bhai and Tarabai Modak. importance of pre-school education. Administration of pre-schools. Planning infrastructure and programmes for pre-schools education. Maintenance, budget and keeping of records. Principles of curriculum planning, and indoor and outdoor activities of nursery school. Models of types of pre-school in India.
Children with Developmental Challenges: Definition and needs of exceptional children. Classification of exceptional children, visual impairment, deaf and hard of hearing speech and language defect, crippled child, socially and emotionally maladjusted and juvenile delinquents. Gitted and mentally retarded children. Psychological problems; necrosis, psychoneurosis, psychoses and schizophrenia. Remedial methods and rehabilitation. Policies and legislations.
Assessment and Counselling: Concept, need and principles of guidance. Aims and objectives of individual and group guidance. Sources of information and methods of group guidance. Use of psychological tests and criteria for testing and measurements. Guidance services: meaning, scope, principles counseling services, methods and techniques in counseling service of children, parents and youth.
Family Ecology: Family in social context. Approaches to study of family: developmental, social, psychological and educational. Modern trends in Indian, urban and rural families and changing family functions. Changing roles and relationships, influence of socio-economic status, culture, religion and the role of family in maintaining mental health. Problems of the family related to sexual misbehavior, aggression and hostility, drug addiction, AIDS etc. Services for family and children, crèches. Impact of consumerism, migration and multiculturism. Marriage and family therapy.
Parenting and Community Education: Meaning and need for community education. Child rearing practices of community, Objectives and principles of parent education. The disadvantaged family. Problems and needs of the disadvantaged family and child. Subject matter or areas of knowledge for parent education. Role of parents and teachers in children. Methods and procedures of parent and community education.
10.4 Foods and Nutrition
Food and Food Groups: Food production and consumption trends in India and their consequences on nutrition situation. Cereals, millets, pulses, oilseeds, vegetables, fruits, milk, eggs, meat and other animal foods. Nutritional value of these food groups and their contribution towards nutrients in Indian diets.
Storage of Food Grains: Grain storage practices in India. Quantitative and qualitative losses during post-harvest handling and storage of food grains. Improved and scientific methods of storage of food grains.
Cooking Methods and Food Processing: Food processing-physical and chemical changes in foods during processing including cooking and preservation with special reference to sensory characteristics and nutritional value. Traditional methods of processing such as parboiling, germination, malting and fermentation and their nutritional advantages. Food colours, flavours and enzymes, and their importance.
Food Safety: Food safety-natural toxicants, pesticide residues, common adulterants and mycotoxins, their harmful effects on health, and methods of eliminating their harmful effects. Food borne diseases and their prevention.
Macro and Micro Nutrients in Human Nutrition: Macro and micro-nutrients in human nutrition. Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins, minerals and trace elements. Requirements, sources, functions and effects of deficiency. Energy-methods of assessing energy requirement and factors influencing requirement. Qualitative differences in food proteins and methods of assessing protein quality. Factors influencing availability of minerals. Nutrients inter-relationships. Importance of fibre in human nutrition. Water and electrolyte balance. Metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. Roles of vitamins and hormones in metabolism.
Community Nutrition: Major nutrition problems in India – causes, magnitude and distribution. Nutritional problems of vulnerable segments – pregnant and lactating women, and pre-school children. Food nutrition programmes to combat malnutrition-strategies, targets and progress. Assessment of community nutritional status-anthropometry, diet survey, biochemical and clinical methods. Indicators/parameters and standards used for assessment by different methods. Growth norms for pre-school children and importance of growth monitoring.
Nutrition During Life Cycle: Nutritional requirements of pregnant and lactating women and pre-school children. Consequences of chronic nutritional deficiencies in these groups. Infant and child feeding practices in India and importance of promoting good feeding practices. Nutrition for elderly.
Clinical Therapeutic Nutrition: Relationships between clinical results and nutritional status. Drug nutrient interaction. Nutrition in disease, therapeutic modifications of normal diets, and their use in treatment of diseases of gastro-intestinal cardio-vascular renal, hepatic metabolic and febrile disorders.
10.5 Home Science Extension and Communication Management
Home Science extension education: concept, principles, philosophy, objectives and approaches. Genesis of rural development programmes in India. Community Development and Integrated Rural Development- concept, principles and objectives. Relationship between family and community development. Gender sensitivity in extension education programmes. Leadership-concept, types, identification, training and mobilizing local leaders for community participation. Problems of women leaders. Panchayati Raj-philosophy, concept, functioning and scope.
Extension methods and audio-visual aids. classification, selection, use and production. Modularized communication- concept, approach, need , process of designing instruction for transfer of communication. Concept, functions, key elements, theories and models of communication. Barriers to communication. Revolution in communication strategies. Advanced techniques in mass communication and soft-ware production. Participatory communication – theories and models, designing and developing participatory massage. Concept, need and constraint of community based learning.
Concept, steps, principles and theories of programme planning. Application of programme planning for Home Science Extension through PERT and CPM. Evaluation – concept, significance, methods and tools for monitoring and evaluation. Development programmes, viz. Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP), Development of Women and Children in Rural Areas (DWCRA), Training of Rural Youth for Self Employment (TRYSEM), Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs). Role of Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) in extension, SWOT analysis of development programmes. Programmes and agencies promoting women as entrepreneurs. Types and techniques of training for developing entrepreneurial activities in Home Science areas. Self Help Groups- concept, organization, mobilization and functioning of SHGs for sustainability. Human Resource Development- concept, need and strategies.
11. FISHERY SCIENCES
(11.1 Aquaculture, 11.2 Fisheries Resource Management, 11.3 Fish Process Technology,
11.4 Fish Nutrition & Feed Technology,)
Unit-1. Aquaculture System
History and scope of Aquaculture; Aquaculture practices in different parts of the world; Global Aquaculture production, consumption scenario and emerging trends; Different systems of Aquaculture-traditional, extensive, intensive, semi- intensive, flow through and re-circulatory. Farming methods-ponds, lens, cages, raceway, raft rope, monoculture, polyculture, mixed culture; Capture based Aquaculture and culture based Aquaculture, integrated multi-trophic Aquaculture (IMTA). Recirculation Aquaculture Systems (RAS, Integration of Aquaculture with agriculture and animal husbandry; sewage-fed faming, organic Aquaculture.
Unit 2. Species Selection Criteria for Various Culture Practices
Criteria for candidate species selection, criteria for site selection for various culture practices; Aquaculture practices for freshwater fish (carps, catfishes, snake heads, feather backs, tilapia, murrels, mahsee; trouts, etc) freshwater prawn, brackishwater and marine shrimp and fish (seabass, milkfish, mullets, pearlspot, cobia, pompano, grouper, snappers, breams, other perches) lobsters, freshwater and marine ornamentals, exotics.
Unit 3 Broodstock Development and Management
Broodstock management and seed production technology-Natural seed collection, holding, packaging, transportation; Environmental, nutritional and endocrine control of reproduction, improvement of seed quality through stock up-gradation induced breeding, synthetic hormones and its analogues and their application, layout and design of hatcheries, PIT tagging, canulation, hormonal and volitional spawning, incubation of eggs, cryopreservation of gametes, larval rearing, live feeds, microalgae, rotifers, Artemia, copepods, seed production of : carps, snakeheads, mahseer, trout, tilapia, pearlspot, ornamentals, Cobia, Grouper, Pompano, Tilapia, Mullets, Milkfish, Snappers, Breams, Shrimps (Penaeus monodon, P. indicus, P. semisulcatus, Litopenaeus vannamei) sand lobster, spiny lobster, mud crab (Scylla serrata) blueswimmer crab (Portunus pelagicus), giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) mussel, edible oyster, pearl oyster. Larval transportation, bio-securityprinciples, Specific pathogen Free (SPF) broodstock development, seed certification, quarantine and hatchery protocols, Nursery rearing, pre-stocking, stocking and post stocking management, feeding and nutrition management, health management, biofilm and its uses, probiotics, bioremediation, biofloc based nutrition.
Unit 4. Farm Design, Construction and Operational Management
Design and construction of aqua-farms: site selection, nutrient and soil quality, micro-organisms and their roe, water supply and water circulation, soil and water quality management, liming, manuring and fertilization, bio-fertilization, poly houses, recirculatory system; construction of pens, cage design and construction, fixed cages, floating cages, semi-submerged and submerged cages, towing cages, flow through systems, race ways.
Feed and nutrition management-Natural and formulated feeds, weaning to artificial feeds, feeding strategies, rations and feeding methods, manual and automatic feed dispersers, demand feeders, feed rationing, feeding protocols: Carrying capacity of aquafarms, use of biofilters, aerators; protocols in grow out systems.
Harvest management- continuous stocking and harvesting, staggered harvest, managing differential growth, live fish marketing, Best Management Practices (BMP) in Aquaculture, Hazards of drugs and chemicals, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), Responsible Aquaculture, Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) agreement, IPR in Aquaculture, Ecosystem approach to Aquaculture, CRZ implications, CAA and its role. Ecolabeling, Organic certification.
11.2 FISHERIES RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Unit 1: Fisheries Resources
Major fisheries resources of the world, global trends in production; Target and non-target fisheries resources of the Indian subcontinent and the EEZ; Distribution, composition, trends and dynamics of major exploited fishery resources in hill streams, rivers, reservoirs, lakes, lagoons, estuaries, territorial waters, oceanic waters, deep sea oceanic islands; Straddling/shared stocks and non-conventional resources; Sports, game and ornamental fisheries; Major commercially exploited stocks, their potentials, status, bionomics, methods of capture and yields; Issues related to capture fisheries; Endangered and threatened species, in-situ and ex-situ conservation; Fisheries and Biodiversity Acts; Juvenile fishing, destructive gears, by-catch and discards; Status and impact of exotic species, accidental introductions; Guidelines and policies for exotics.
Unit 2: Fishery Biology
Life history of economically important fish species; Food and feeding habits, methods of studying food and feeding habits; Reproductive biology, maturity stages, fecundity, ova diameter studies and breeding cycles; Length- weight relationships; Condition Factor, Gonado-Somatic Index; Age and growth studies - methods for determination of age, study of growth rates, direct and indirect methods; Taxonomy of major fish groups; Recruitment, growth and mortality of fish in natural water bodies; Different analytical and Holistic models for fish stock assessment, their advantages and disadvantages; Catch per unit effort, Concept of Maximum Sustainable Yield and Maximum Economic Yield; Application of remote sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) in resource mapping and forecasting; Mechanisms, methods and status of fish yield data acquisition, storage, retrieval and processing for national estimates; Ecosystem-based fisheries management tools; Monitoring, control and surveillance (MCS) systems for major fisheries; Computer softwares in stock assessment; Use of Virtual Population Analysis and Predictive models.
Unit 3: Aquatic Environment
Various aquatic habitats and fish faunal compositions, trophic relationships, distribution and abundance; Fisheries oceanography and marine fisheries; Limnological parameters; Influence of environmental parameters on fish abundance, distribution, resource resilience; Impact of fishing, aquaculture, other anthropogenic activities on the environment and fish stock. Disaster management in fisheries; Methods for increasing productivity of water bodies (Use of thermal energy and deep sea water through artificial upwelling, Use of ranching, Artificial reefs, FADs and their uses); Habitat degradation and its impact on fisheries; Pollution of water bodies and its impact; Bioindicators and Bioremediation; Protected areas (sanctuaries, marine parks, biosphere reserves and Ramsar sites); Potential fishing zones.
Unit 4: Fisheries Management
Concepts and principles of fisheries management; Fisheries Acts and Legislations, revisions and amendments; Fisheries policies, instruments and mechanisms for inland, coastal and open ocean fisheries management; Management of riverine, reservoir and lacustrine fisheries; Management of marine fisheries; Modes of fisheries management - Open access, regulated, advisory; participatory, user rights; International fishery regulations, treaties and instruments; Input control measures such as access control, size, type, number and power of boats, duration of fishing; Output control measures such as Total Allowable Catch, Catch Quotas, Licensing, Technical control measures such as size limitations, closed fishing areas, closed seasons, size of nets and mesh size regulations, limited entry; Impediments to fisheries governance; UNCLOS, FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries; India’s commitment to international treaties and resolutions.
Unit 5: Fishing Technology
Different types of craft and gear, their operation and their maintenance; Selectivity of fishing gears, by-catch reduction devices in trawls, turtle excluder devices; Use of modern techniques and equipment for fish finding and capturing.
Unit 6: Economics and Marketing
Supply, demand and price dynamics in the fisheries sector; domestic and export marketing of fish and fish products, trends, channels, mechanisms, regulations, trade and non-trade barriers, concerns and strategies; modern marketing methods and channels, cold chains, storage; value addition; domestic and international market demands; International regulations and practices affecting Indian fisheries trade; WTO and Indian fisheries scenario; Issues in branding and labelling; Quality concerns; Growth of domestic and exports markets; Market trends and diversification; Emerging consumer preferences and trade practices; Fisheries co-operatives; Institutional support for fisheries development.
Unit 7: Fisheries Livelihood
Relevance of capture fisheries in food, nutrition, employment, income and livelihood securities of fishers; Vulnerability of fishers to changes in resource availability, exploitation and utilization patterns; Marginalization of fishermen, small scale processors and traders due to changing scenarios of product diversification, markets and trade; Impact of dams, river linking, CRZ, Biodiversity Bill, protected/closed area, fishing bans, closed seasons, protected areas, mangroves, sanctuaries and parks on the fisher communities. Land and water body use issues in fisheries. Role of extension in fisheries, mechanisms and modes of extension and their impact on capture fisheries and fisher's livelihood, alternative livelihood options; Management of conflicts within sub-sectors in fisheries; Women in fisheries, status, role, impact, future; Vulnerability of fishers to natural disasters and coping mechanisms in disaster management.
11.3 FISH PROCESS TECHNOLOGY
Unit 1: Craft Technology
Fishing crafts of the world; Principles of design and construction; Corrosion protection; Craft materials - wood, marine plywood, fibreglass, reinforced plastic, aluminium, steel, ferro-cement; Bio-deterioration and preventive measures; FAO classification of fishing vessels; Different types of fishing vessels in India; General arrangements of fishing vessels; Basic principles of fishing vessel design; Stability of fishing vessels - factors affecting stability; Powering of fishing boats; Deck machinery for trawlers, seiners, gill netters and liner; Winches- net haulers, line haulers, power blocks, special purpose winches; Engine installation- types of engines for fishing vessels, four stroke cycle, two stroke cycle; Selection of engine for fishing vessels; Transmission systems - Reduction/reverse gear boxes; Modern navigation equipment, navigation and fishing lights; Life saving devices - life jacket, life buoy, life raft, SART, EPIRB.
Unit 2: Gear Technology
Gear Materials - Netting yarns, natural fibres and their classification, origin, properties & preservation; Synthetic fibres- Classification, manufacture, identification and comparative properties; Construction of netting twines; designation of netting yarns and twine twist-coefficient; direction, yarn numbering system; Specification and characteristics of netting; Fishing accessories- Floats, buoys and sinkers, connectors and swivels, ground gear sheer devices, hooks; Classification of fishing gear. Fishing gears used in India; Fish behaviour in relation to fishing techniques; Factors affecting fishing gear design; Fishing gear selectivity - Selectivity of trawls, gill nets and lines; Model testing of fishing gear - flume tank; Structure and operation of trawls; Otter boards - principles of operation, variation in design; Structure, design variation and operation of purse seines, gillnets and trammel nets, lines and traps. Electrical fishing; Harvesting machines; Selective fishing gear and practices: By catch and discards, By catch reduction devices (BRDs), Turtle excluder devices (TEDs); Fish aggregating devices.
Unit 3: Process Biochemistry
Major and minor constituents of fish, their distribution and function- moisture, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals; Glycogen in fish and its functions; Structure, classification and constitution of proteins; Use of functional properties of proteins for developing fish products; Essential amino acids and limiting amino acids and their requirements; Post-mortem changes -rigor mortis, autolysis, auto-oxidation and their significance; antioxidant mechanisms; Biochemical and microbial spoilage of fish; Lipids in fish -their structure and classification; Enzymes in fish -their classification and mechanism of action; Vitamins in fish - vitamin deficiency diseases; Minerals and trace elements in fish; Toxins and toxic substances in fish, their bioaccumulation and biomagnification; Biogenic amines.
Unit 4: Fish Processing Technology
Factors affecting spoilage of fish; Principles of fish preservation; Preservation of fish by curing (drying, salting and smoking); Water content, water activity (aw) and storage stability; Onboard handling of fish; sanitary and phyto-sanitary requirements for maintenance of quality; grading of fish; Chilling and freezing of fish - principles of chilling and freezing, crystallisation, nucleation, crystal growth, methods of chilling, transportation and marketing of chilled fish, the application of freezing systems in fish processing; Changes in quality of chilled and frozen products during storage; Canning of fish and fish products- principles of canning, can materials, can shapes, process value calculation and spoilage of canned food; Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) of fish and fish products; Accelerated freeze drying (AFD); Surimi and fish-mince products- the surimi process; Fish muscle proteins; Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids; Irradiation- Radiation sources, units, dose levels, radappertization, radicidation, radurization; Effects of irradiation on protein, fat and vitamin; Packaging and transportation of fish and fishery products - temperature modeling and relationships in fish transportation; transportation containers; Safety and quality and spoilage of fish during transportation; Fishery products and by-products exported from India; Packaging- aim, purpose and objectives, packaging and transportation of fresh fish, cured fish, canned fish, frozen fish, freeze-dried fish, by-products and value-added products; Additives- classes of additives, preservatives, antimicrobial additives.
Unit 5: Microbiology, Quality Management and Certification
Roles of bacteria and moulds in fish preservation; Modification of intrinsic and extrinsic parameters for fish preservation; Spoilage of fresh fish, chilled fish and processed fish products; Micro-organisms in frozen, canned and dried products, and their control; Human pathogenic bacteria, virus, molds and parasites in fish and fishery products; Sources of contamination and control measures; Fish quality evaluation and different indices of quality; Quality management in seafood processing-Concepts of Total quality management, HACCP, practical aspects of planning and implementing HACCP systems; Hazards in sea foods; Risk assessment; National and international standards - ISO 9000 series, ISO 22000. Codex alimentarius, ICMSF; Food Safety and Standards Act of India 2006; Role of BIS and EIA; Traceability issues in international trade.
Unit 6: Fishery Engineering
Selection of site for fish processing plant, layout and design- Canning plant, fish meal plant, surimi plant, freezing plant; Ideal requirements for construction of cold storage; Different types of cold storage; Seafood waste management; Refrigeration engineering-fundamental principles of refrigeration, refrigeration cycle; Refrigerants definition, type of refrigerant and their properties; types of condensers, type of boilers, type of evaporators; Machinery for handling and processing fish- Deboner, filleting machine, freshness analysers.
Unit 7: Economics and Marketing
Fisheries enterprise management; Trends of domestic and export marketing of fish and fishery products, modern marketing methods and channels – supply chain management, cold chain facilities and infrastructure; Value-addition; Institutional support for fish harvest and post- harvest practices.
11.4 FISH NUTRITION & FEED TECHNOLOGY
Unit 1. Principles of Fish Nutrition
Nutrients, sources, structure, classification, bio-synthesis. Metabolism of proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, vitamins and minerals. Essential aminoacids, functions and deficiency symptoms, Vitamins and minerals, their role in fish nutrition, deficiency symptoms, Vitamin and mineral requirements in herbivores, carnivores, major fresh water, marine and brackishwater cultured species. Metabolic pathways of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates, Sparing action, P:E ratio, Assessing nutritional requirements of larvae, fingerlings, young fish, growout, fattening, reproductive energy needs, basic fish bioenergetics, energy portioning, energy budget.
Unit 2. Nutritional Physiology
Morphology, anatomy and physiology of the digestive systems of various types of fish such as herbivores, planktivores, omnivores, carnivores, detritivores, mixed diet. Nutrient digestion and digestive processes. Control and regulation of digestion. Factors affecting feed intake, digestion, absorption, assimilation. Microbial digestion; Digestibility and factors affecting. Digestive enzymes in fish; Gastric, pancreatic and intestinal secretions and role of microorganisms in digestion. Transport of nutrients in the body, storage, conversion and utilization. Role of liver and muscles in fat and glycogen storage and release. Digestive hormones, nutrient regulation of endocrine functions, role of nutrition in reproduction, transport and use of fat and protein for reproductive purposes.
Unit 3. Feed Formulation, Feed Technology and Feeding Management
Principles of feed formulation, feed ingredients, international coding of feed ingredients, evaluation of ingredient quality, conventional unconventional and novel ingredients, feed additives and feed binders, anti-nutritional factors and their prevention; Methods of feed formulation, feed processing units and processes, various feed types such as moist, semi-moist, dry, crumble, pellet, sinking, slow sinking, floating, microbound, microencapsulated, micro-coated, high energy. Fortification of micronutrients in larval and broodstock diet, exogenous enzymes in fish feed, Feed storage, packaging and prevention of spoilage.
Unit 4. Nutrition and Fish Health
Nutrients and their effects on fish health. Nutritional diseases, anti-nutritional factors, nutraceuticals for fish health, nutrients and immunity, nutrients and flesh quality, hyper and hypovitaminosis. Mycotoxins in fish feed, nutritional imbalances. Dietary lipid and stress tolerance in fish larvae. Mycotoxin in fish feed. Phytase and phytate in feed ingredients. Anti-nutritional factors in feed ingredients. Anti-nutrients and metabolism. Nutrient deficiency diseases.
Unit 5: Nutrigenomics
Nutritionally important genes, gene regulation by lipids and carbohydrates, metabolic control analysis, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics, nutrient-gene interaction and expression, reverse transcription and CDNA synthesis, genetic control of metabolic pathways, functional food aids in prevention of human health disorders.
12. NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT-I
(12.1. Forestry/Agroforestry, 12.2 Agricultural Meteorology, 12.3 Environmental Sciences)
National Forest Policy 1894, 1952 and 1988; Indian Forest Act, 1927; Forest Conservation Act,1980 and Wildlife Protection Act, 1972; Amendments 1991, 2003 and 2006, Biological Diversity Act, 2002, The Scheduled Tribes and Other traditional forest dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006. Forests-extent, basis for classification and distribution in India; Geographical distribution and salient features of major world forest types; Phylogeographical regions and vegetation of India; Role of forests in national economy - productive, protective and ameliorative, tribal and rural livelihoods; Forest types of India: distribution and types; Succession, climax and retrogression; Concepts of biomass, productivity, energy flow and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystem; Migration and dispersal mechanism.
Concept and definition of agroforestry, social forestry, community forestry and farm forestry; Benefits and constraints of agroforestry; Historical development of agroforestry and overview of global agroforestry systems. Classification of agroforestry systems: structural, functional, socio-economic and ecological; Diagnosis and design of agroforestry system; Land capability classification and land use; Criteria of an ideal agroforestry design, productivity, sustainability and adoptability; Multipurpose tree species and their characteristics suitable for agroforestry.
Plant management practices in agroforestry; Tree-crop interactions: ecological and economic; Concept of complementarity, supplementarity and competition; Productivity, nutrient cycling and light, water and nutrient competition in agroforestry; Concept of allelopathy and its impact on agroforestry; Energy plantations - choice of species and management; Lopping of top-feed species such as frequency and intensity of lopping; Organic farming; Financial analysis and economic evaluation of agroforestry systems: cost benefit analysis and land equivalent ratio; Agroforestry practices and systems in different agro - ecological zones of India. Alley cropping, home gardens, shifting cultivation, shelterbelts and windbreaks, Principles and criteria of plant selection in agroforestry – Resource use efficiency in agroforestry.
Extent and causes of land denudation; Effects of deforestation on soil erosion, land degradation, environment and rural economy; Wastelands: their extent, characteristics and reclamation; Watershed management and its role in social, economic and ecological development; Biomass production for fuel wood, small timber, raw material for plant-based cottage industries, non-wood forest products such as fibres, flosses, dyes, gums, resins & tannins, medicinal plants, essential oils, edible fruits, spices, bamboo and canes; Wood quality, logging, wood seasoning and wood preservation techniques; Plywood and pulp industries.
Forest mensuration - definition, object and scope; Measurement of diameter, girth, height, stem form, bark thickness, crown width and crown length; Measurement methods and their principles. Measurement and computation of volume of logs and felled/standing trees; Construction and application of volume tables; Biomass measurement; Growth and increment; Measurement of crops; Forest inventory: kinds of enumeration, sampling methods, sample plots and aerial photo interpretation; Geographic information systems and remote sensing - concept and scope.
Definition, object and scope of silviculture; Site factors - climatic, edaphic, physiographic, biotic and their influence on forest vegetation; Forest regeneration: natural and artificial; Silvicultural systems - high forest and coppice systems; Silviculture of important tree species - Populus, Eucalyptus, Dalbergia, Acacia, Tectona, Shorea, Prosopis, Casurina, Pinus, Gmelina, Azadirachta, Diospyros, Pterocarpus, Anogeissus, Santalum, Quercus and Albizia bamboo, Meliadubia, Ailanthus excelsa , Simaroubaand Karanja.
Seed collection, processing, storage, viability and pre-treatment; Seed dormancy and methods for breaking dormancy; Seed testing and germination tests; Seed certification and ISTA Rules; Forest nursery - need, selection and preparation of site, layout and design of nursery beds; Types of containers; Root trainers; Growing media and sowing methods; Management of nursery-shading, watering, manuring, fertilizer application, weed control, insect pest and diseases control; Planting techniques: site selection, evaluation and protection; Soil working techniques for various edaphic and climatic conditions; Planting patterns; Plant spacing, manure and fertilizer application, irrigation/moisture conservation techniques; Choice of species. Afforestation on difficult sites: saline-alkaline soils, coastal sands, lateritic soils, wetlands, ravines and sand dunes, dry and rocky areas, cold desert; Tending operations - weeding, cleaning, climber cutting, thinning - mechanical, ordinary, crown and selection thinning, improvement felling, pruning and girdling; Forest fires: causes, types, impacts and control measures; Major forest pests and weeds.
Forest management: definition and scope; Concept of sustained yield and normal forest; Rotation; Estimation of growing stock, density and site quality; Management of even aged and uneven aged forest; Regulation of yield in regular and irregular forests by area, volume, increment and number of trees; land equivalent ratio; Working plan; Joint forest management; Conservation and management of natural resources including wildlife; Forest evaluation; Internal rate of return, present net worth and cost benefit analysis.
Tree improvement: nature and extent of variations in natural population; Natural selection; Concept of seed source/ provenance; Selection of superior trees; Seed production areas, exotic trees, land races; Collection, evaluation and maintenance of germplasm; Provenance testing. Genetic gains; Tree breeding: general principles, mode of pollination and floral structure; Basics of forest genetics - inheritance, Hardy weinberg Law, genetic drift; Aims and methods of tree breeding. Seed orchard: types, establishment, planning and management, progeny test and designs; Clonal forestry - merits and demerits; Techniques of vegetative propagation, tissue culture, mist chamber; Role of growth substances in vegetative propagation.
Forestry in bio-economic productivity of different agro-eco-systems and environmental management; Global overview and classification of agroforestry systems; Tree-crop interaction in agroforestry; Biomass production for fuel’ wood, small timber, raw material for plants-based cottage industries, Principle and criteria of plant selection in agroforestry; Resource use-efficiency in agroforestry. Measurement of rangeland productivity, Ecosystem services, Population estimation in wildlife – census methods, Man-Animal conflicts and management strategies.
Measurement of trees and stand – diameter, girth, height, form and crown characteristics; Measurement methods and their principles; Volume/biomass estimation, volume tables; Measurement of rangeland productivity; Forest enumeration: sampling methods, sample plots, surveys and photo interpretation; Concept and application of GIS and remote sensing; Introduction to internal rate of return, present net worth, cost benefit analysis and land equivalent ratio; Agroforestry and environmental conservation; Role of green revolution in forest conservation in India. In situ and ex situ conservation of forest genetic resources – Sacred groves; Urban forestry – Choice of species, design, development and management, Eco-tourism.
Climate change: greenhouse effect, sources and sinks of greenhouse gases, major greenhouses gases; Global climate change – its history and future predictions; Impact of climate change on agriculture, forestry, wildlife, water resources, sea level; Livestock, fishery and coastal ecosystems; International conventions on climate change; Global warming: effect of enhanced CO2 on productivity; Ozone layer depletion; Disaster management, floods, droughts, earthquakes; Tsunami, cyclones and landslides; Agroforestry and carbon sequestration.
Statistics: definition, object and scope; Frequency distribution; Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, introduction to correlation and regression; Experimental designs: basic principles, completely randomized, randomized block, Latin square and split plot designs.
12.2 AGRICULTURAL METEOROLOGY
Unit 1 : General Meteorology
Laws of radiation: Planck's law, Stephan-Boatman law, Wein's displacement law; Kirchoff’s law, Beer's law and Lambert's, Cosine law, Solar constant, length of day;
Atmospheric and astronomical factors affecting depiction of solar radiation; Ozone hole; Direct and diffuse radiation; Heat transfer, convection, conduction and radiation; Concepts of latent and sensible heat; Radiant flux and flux density; Atmospheric motion balanced forces; Gas laws, pressure gradient, isobars, hydraulic equation and its application; Carioles force, geotropic, gradient and cyclostrophic winds; Pressure systems; Cyclones and anticyclonic motions: trough, ridge and col; Thermal wind; Contour charts, Concepts of specific heat at constant volume and pressure; First and second laws of thermodynamics, vapor pressure, specific humidity, relative humidity, mixing ratio, absolute humidity and dew point temperature; Vapour pressure deficit; Psychometric equation, entropy, T-phi gram; Vertical stability of atmosphere, virtual temperature and potential temperature; Moist and dry adiabatic processes; Clouds their description and classification; Condensation process-artificial rain making; Bergeron-Findeison theory; Dew, frost, fog, mist, haze thunderstorm and hail; Air masses and fronts; Extra tropical cyclones; Land and sea breeze; Mountain and valley winds; Wind rose, Tropical cyclones and their structures; Weather variables and their measurements; Units for measurements of momentum, force work, power, surface tension, pressure, temperature; Thermal - conductivity and diffusivity, resistance, radiation light intensity and water vapour.
Unit 2 : General Climatology
Elements of weather and climate; Seasonal distribution of radiation, rainfall. temperature sunshine, wind pressure over India; Climatic classification - Koppen and Thornthwaite; Climatology principles of weather phenomena occurring in four main seasons of India; Mechanism of Indian monsoons; Climatic variability, recent trends, Mitigation and adaptation strategies, factor affecting rainfall distribution, cyclones and cyclonic tracks over the Indian region; North western disturbances and monsoon breaks; Drought climatology, rainfall and its variability, atmospheric and agricultural droughts intensity, duration, beginning and end of drought and wet spells; Moisture availability indices; Heat and cold waves; Contingents, maritime and monsoon climates, El-Niño, La Nino and their impact on Indian rainfall systems.
Unit 3 : Agricultural Climatology
Meaning and scope; Effect of thermal environment on growth and yield of crops; Cardinal temperatures; Thermoperiodism, photoperiodism; Vont Hoff’s law, phenology of crops; Heat unit concept, thermal time and thermal use-efficiency and their applications; Length of growing period determination. contingency planning far different weather aberrations; Meteorological factors associated with incidence and development of crop pests and disease, potato blight, apple scan, groundnut red hairy caterpillar, locust etc.; Effect of climate on humans and animals, warm and cold season indices for comfort zones, role of weather in animal disease and protection against weather hazards.
Unit 4 : Micrometeorology
Concept of micro, meso and macro meteorology; Micrometeorological processes near bare ground and crop surfaces; Shearing stress, molecular and eddy diffusion, forced and tree convection; Boundary layer, frictional velocity, roughness length and zero plane displacement; Micrometeorology of crops, rice and wheat; Day and night radiation, humidity, temperature, wind and CO2 profiles in crop canopies; Richardson number, Reynolds analogy, exchange coefficients, fluxes of momentum, water vapors, CO2 and heat; Inversion and its effect on smoke plume distribution; Windbreaks and shelterbelts, different methods on modification of field microclimate; Frost protection, spectral properties of vegetation; Light interception by crop canopies as influenced by leaf area index, leaf arrangement and leaf transmissibility, extinction coefficient and radiation use–efficiency; Microclimate of field crops, forest and orchards etc.
Unit 5 : Evapotranspiration
Hydrological cycle and concept of water balance, concepts of evaporation. evapotranspiration, potential and actual evapotranspiration, consumptive use, different approaches of ET determination empirical methods, energy balance and Bowen's ratio methods, water balance single and multilayered soil methods, aerodynamic, eddy correlation and combination approaches, field lysimetric approaches and canopy temperature based methods; Advantages and limitations of different methods; Water use and water use-efficiency, dry matter production and crop yield functions; Irrigation scheduling based on ET; Advective energy determination and its effect on water use by crops; Physiological variation in relation to crop growth and development.
Unit 6 : Crop Weather Modeling
Concepts of mechanistic and deterministic models; General features of dynamical and statistical modeling techniques; Crop weather models and their use in crop yield assessments; Crop weather analysis models, empirical, statistical models, and crop growth simulation models for yield assessment; Use of SPA and CERES models, concepts for crop growth and yield; Advantages and limitations of modeling, climatic change, greenhouse effect, CO2 increase, global warming and their impact on agriculture.
Unit 7 : Weather Forecasting for Agriculture
Crop weather calendars: Short, medium and long range weather forecasting; Monsoon onset and rainfall forecasts; Weather forecasting and agro-advisories; Use of satellite cloud imageries in weather forecasting; Synoptic charts and synoptic approach to weather forecasting, use of medium, long range and vegetative indices based agro meteorology forecasts for monitoring crop prospects and crop yield forecasts; Meteorological satellites for weather forecasts; Forecast of Indian monsoon rainfall; Early warning systems for agriculture operation forecasts.
12.3 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES
Definition and scope of environment science and its interrelationship with other sciences and agriculture; Origin and evolution of the earth and its environs-atmosphere: hydrosphere, Lithosphere and biosphere; Biogeochemical cycles; Components of environment - biotic, abiotic and social; Weather and climate; History and evolution of human settlement; Effect of various developmental activities on environment.
Basic ecological concepts - habitat ecology, systems ecology, synecology, autecology; Ecosystem concept; Structure and functions of biotic and abiotic components; Energy in ecosystems and environment; Energy exchange and productivity-food chains and food webs-ecological pyramids, nutrient cycles and recycle pathways; Population - characteristics and measurement; Communities - habitats, niches, biomes, population dynamics, species and individual in the ecosystem; Recent trends in ecology; Types characteristic features, structure and function of forest, grassland, plantation, desert; Aquatic and agro-ecosystem; Ecological succession - types and causes.
Biodiversity concepts, levels and types, changes in tune and space, evolution, centres of origin of crops, species concept; Significance of biodiversity; Theories on biodiversity; Environment vs Transgenic crops and animals; Agro-biodiversity – Conceptual view and general benefits of Agricultural Development and its pros and cons on environment; Plant genetic resources, exploration and collection; Crop domestication, plant introductions; Migration and utilization; IUCN clauses and concept of threatened and endangered species; Biogeography; Principles of conservation of biological diversity in-situ and ex-situ. Causes of loss of biodiversity: introduction of exotics and invasive plants; Methods of conservation, role of national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, biosphere reserves; National and global conservation measures, institutions and conventions; Indian Biodiversity Act 2002; Biodiversity and economics with special reference to India; Biodiversity in relation to global environmental changes; Biodiversity hot spots in India and world; World heritage sites; Wetlands – Ramsar sites, Biodiversity and life security.
Composition of air; Criteria pollutants, Indoor and out-door air pollution, Air pollution: sources and classification of major air pollutants; Smoke, smog, photochemical smog and SPM; Methods of air pollution monitoring; Effects of air pollutants on crops, vegetation, animals and human health; mitigation measures for combating air pollution; Factors affecting plant response to air pollution; Acid rain, physiological and biochemical effects of SO2, HF, PAN and O3 on vegetation, toxicity symptoms on vegetation, defence mechanism against air pollutants in plants, sensitive and tolerant plant species to air pollutants. Mass transit and air pollution episodes in India and world, National and international laws and policies on air pollution; Permissible limits of air pollutants in the residential, commercial and industrial areas; Clean air program, Automobile pollution, Noise pollution-concept and effects, Light pollution; Fluoride pollution, Orbit pollution, Xenobiotics and their effect on agriculture.
Soil and water pollution: sources and types of soil and water pollutants; Effects of pollutants on soil health and productivity; Radioactive pollutants, their life time and disposal; Point and non-point sources of water pollution, major types of water pollutants, their impacts on environment and agro-ecosystems; Pollution in fresh water bodies, ponds, lakes, rivers and wells. Effects of soil and water pollutants on crop plants, animals, microorganism and human health; National and International laws and maximum permissible limits of soil and water pollutants; Biomagnification and its impact on loss of biodiversity; Physical, chemical and biological properties of wastes; Effluent treatment processes for major industries viz. distilleries; paper and pulp, sugar, sewage and other agro-industrial wastes; Resource, product recovery, recycling and value addition to wastes; Biodegradation and bioconversion of organic wastes, composting, landfills; Vermicomposting, biogas. animal feed. mushroom cultivation etc.; Use of sludge, flyash, effluents and other agro industrial wastes in agriculture; Microbial, chemical and phytoremediation processes; Microbiological and public health aspects of waste disposal; Heavy metal contamination of environments, source and sinks of heavy metals. Pesticide contamination in environment; Pesticide residues and its impact; Biomedical waste; Nano-remediation and ecotoxicology of nanoparticles in environment; Bio-remediation of organic and inorganic contaminations; GEM's and pollution abatement; E- waste and impacts on environment; Major river projects and its impact; Environmental Monitoring.
Climate change: Global warming and greenhouse effect, sources and sinks of greenhouse gases, major GHGs, analytical techniques of monitoring greenhouse gases in atmosphere; Global climate change - its history and future predictions. Impact of climate change on agriculture, forestry, water resources, sea level rise, livestock, fisheries, coastal ecosystem and dynamics and pests and diseases and overall ecological processes; Climate change and food security; Contribution of agriculture and forestry to climate change; International conventions on climate change; Stratospheric ozone layer depletion-effect of UV radiation on plants and human health; Adaptation and mitigation strategies of climate change, global dimming agrobiological effects of CO2 fertilization on crops; Carbon sequestration and clean development mechanism. Impact of climate change on crop productivity and soil fertility; Mathematical models and yield prediction and its role in predicting change and forecast; Assessing global shift in monsoon pattern; Carbon trading tax; Carbon credit; Vertical farming; Impact of troposphere trace gases on vegetation, field crops and soil properties.
Energy consumption pattern in urban and rural India; Types of renewable sources of energy; Solar energy: concepts of heat and mass transfer; design of solar thermal system and their applications in heating. cooling. distillation. drying. dehydration etc., design of solar photovoltaic systems, power generation for rural electrification-water pumping, solar ponds; Wind energy for mechanical and electrical power generation, types of wind mills; Geothermal and tidal energy; Offshore wind energy; Biomass conversion to energy; Biogas from animal and agricultural wastes, types of biogas plants, utilization of biogas for heating, cooking lighting and power generation; Characteristics of biogas slurry and its utilization; Energy from biogas; Liquid fuels from petro crops, energy plantation crops; Concepts of producer gas; characterization of materials for producer gas, types of gasifiers; Animals draft power and its utilization in rural sector; Briquetting of agro-wastes for fuel; Potential of renewable energy sources in India, Integrated rural energy programme; Causes of failure of biogas plants in rural India. Nuclear power – waste management; Use of green chemicals in industries; Earth hour.
Natural resources of India: land, soil, water and forest and their conservation and management including wildlife; Effects of deforestation on soil erosion; Land degradation; Environment and rural economy; Wasteland: their extent, characteristics and reclamation; Soil and water conservation, rain water harvesting and watershed management; Desertification and biological invasion; Rain water harvesting; Mineral resources: use and exploitation, environmental effects of extracting and using mineral resources; Disaster management: floods, droughts, earthquakes; Tsunami, cyclones and landslides; Nuclear hazards; Environmental impact assessment for physical, chemical, biological and socio-economic factors; Legislative implications of EIA, environmental impacts assessment and environmental auditing; Major global environmental issues; Human population and environment: population growth, variation among nations. Population explosion - Family welfare programme; World food resources; World food problems; Environment and human health; Environmental ethics: issues and possible solutions; Environmental policies and laws in India; Public environmental awareness; Human rights; Role of information technology in environmental and human health; Industrial pollutants; Sea weeds and their utilization in agar, alginic acid, carrageenan, agarose and agaropectin production; Impact of green revolution on the environments. Measuring environmental damage and valuation methodologies; ISO Certificates; CPCB and SPCB standards; MoEF; Environmental treaties; Role of NGO's in environmental protection; Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) of industries in environmental protection; Advance tools for ecosystem analysis – Remote sensing (RS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS).
Frequency distribution, mean, median, mode and standard deviation; Normal, binomial and poisson distribution; Correlations - partial and multiple; Regression coefficients and multiple regression. Tests of significance F and Chi-square (X2) tests; Experimental designs - basic principles, completely randomized, randomized block, Latin square and split plot designs.
13. NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT-II
(13.1 Agronomy, 13.2 Soil Sciences/Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry)
Unit 1 : Crop Ecology and Geography
Principles of crop ecology; Ecosystem concept and determinants of productivity of ecosystem; Physiological limits of crop yield and variability in relation to ecological optima; Crop adaptation; Climate shift and its ecological implication; Greenhouse effect; Agro-ecological and agro climatic regions of lndia; Geographical distribution of cereals, legumes, oilseeds, vegetables, fodders and forages, commercial crops, condiments and spices, medicinal and aromatic plants; Adverse climatic factors and crop productivity; Photosynthesis, respiration, net assimilation, solar energy conversion efficiency and relative water content, light intensity, water and CO2 in relation to photosynthetic rates and efficiency; Physiological stress in crops; Remote sensing: Spectral indices and their application in agriculture, crop water stress indices and crop stress detection.
Unit 2 : Weed Management
Scope and principles of weed management; Weeds’ classification, biology, ecology and allelopathy; Crop weed competition, weed threshold; Herbicides classification, formulations, mode of action, selectivity and resistance; Persistence of herbicides in soils and plants; Application methods and equipment; Cultural, physical, mechanical weed control, Biological weed control, bio-herbicides: Integrated weed management; Special weeds, parasitic and aquatic weeds and their management in cropped and non-cropped lands; weed control schedules in field crops, vegetables and plantation crops; Role of GM crops in weed management.
Unit 3 : Soil Fertility and Fertilizer Use
History of soil fertility and fertilizer use; Concept of essentiality of plant nutrients, their critical concentrations in plants, nutrient interactions, diagnostic techniques with special emphasis on emerging deficiencies of secondary and micro-nutrients; Soil fertility and productivity and their indicators; Fertilizer materials including liquid fertilizers, their composition, mineralization, availability and reaction products in soils; Water solubility of phosphate fertilizers; Slow release fertilizers, nitrification inhibitors and their use for crop production; Principles and methods of fertilizer application including fertigation; Integrated nutrient management and bio-fertilizers; Agronomic and physiological efficiency and recovery of applied plant nutrients; Criteria for determining fertilizer schedules for cropping systems direct, residual and cumulative effects; Fertilizer related environmental problems including ground water pollution; Site-specific nutrient management; Contamination of heavy metals in peri-urban soils and their remediation.
Unit 4 : Dryland Agronomy
Concept of dryland farming; dryland farming vs rainfed farming; History, development, significance and constraints of dryland agriculture in India; Climatic classification and delineation of dryland tracts; Characterization of agro-climatic environments of drylands; Rainfall analysis and length of growing season; Types of drought, drought syndrome, effect on plant growth, drought resistance, drought avoidance, drought management; Crop Planning including contingency, crop diversification, varieties, cropping systems, conservation cropping and mid-season corrections for aberrant weather conditions; Techniques of moisture conservation in-situ to reduce evapotranspiration, runoff and to increase infiltration; Rain water harvesting and recycling concept, techniques and practices; Timelines and precision key factors for timely sowing, precision in seeding, weed control; Fertilizer placement, top dressing and foliar application, aqua-fertigation; Concept and importance of watershed management in dryland areas.
Unit 5 : Crop Production in Problem Soils
Problem soils and their distribution in India, acid, saline, waterlogged and mined - soils; Response of crop to acidity, salinity, sodicity, excess water and nutrient imbalances; Reclamation of problem soils, role of amendments and drainage; Crop production techniques in problem soils - crops, varieties, cropping system and agronomic practices; Effects of water table fluctuation on crop growth; Degraded lands and their rehabilitation.
Unit 6 : Crop Production
Crop production techniques for cereals, millets, legumes, oilseeds, fiber crops, sugarcane, tobacco, fodder and pasture crops including origin, history, distribution, adaptation, climate, soil, season, modern varieties, Seed rate, fertilizer requirements, crop geometry, intercultural operations, water requirement. weed control, harvest, quality components, industrial use, economics and post-harvest technology.
Unit 7 : Agricultural Statistics
Frequency distribution, standard error and deviation, correlation and regression analyses, co-efficient of variation; Tests of significance-t, F and chi-square (X2); Data transformation and missing plot techniques; Design of experiments and their basic principles, completely randomized, randomized block, split plot, strip-plot, factorial and simple confounding designs; Efficiency of designs; Methods of statistical analysis for cropping systems including intercropping; Pooled analysis.
Unit 8 : Sustainable Land Use Systems
Concept of sustainability; Sustainability parameters and indicators; Conservation agriculture; Alternate land use systems; Types, extent and causes of wasteland; Shifting cultivation; Agro forestry systems; Agricultural and agro-industrial residues and its recycling, safe disposal; Allelopathy and biomass production.
Unit 9 : Basics of Soil and Water
Soil and water as vital resources for agricultural production; Occurrence of groundwater, groundwater aquifers, exploration of groundwater; Hydrological cycle; Soil-plant water relationship; Fate of rain water received at the soil surface, runoff and infiltration reciprocity, factors affecting infiltration, means to enhance infilterability of soil, mechanical and biological means to reduce runoff and soil loss; Water harvesting for crop lifesaving irrigations; watershed management; Soil and water conservation; Contingent crop plans and other strategies for aberrant weather conditions; Cropping patterns, alternate land use and crop diversification in rainfed areas; Analysis of hydrologic data and their use.
Unit 10 : Soil Water Relationship
Soil water relations, water retention by soil, soil moisture characteristics, field capacity, permanent wilting point, plant available water and extractable water; Soil irrigability, classifications, factors affecting profile water storage; Determination of soil water content, computation of soil water depletion, soil water potential and its components, hydraulic head; Movement of soil water saturated and unsaturated water flow; Field water budget, water gains and water losses from soil, deep percolation beyond root zone, capillary rise; Evapotranspiration (ET), scope for economizing water, measures for reducing direct evaporation from soil and crop canopies; Soil physical properties in relation to plant growth and development; Erodability of soils and their prevention.
Unit 11 : Plant Water Relationship
Plant water relations: Concept of plant water potential, cell water relations, plant water potential and its components; Significance of osmotic adjustment, leaf diffusive resistance, canopy temperature, canopy temperature depression (CTD); Water movement through soil - plant atmosphere systems, uptake and transport of water by roots; Development of crop water deficit, crop adaptation to water deficit, morpho-physiological effect of water deficit; Drought tolerance, mechanisms of drought tolerance, potential drought tolerance traits and their measurements. management and breeding strategies to improve crop productivity under different patterns of drought situations of limited water supplies; Effect of excess water on plant growth and production; Types of droughts, drought indices.
Unit 12 : Irrigation Water Management
Management of irrigation water; History of irrigation in India; Major irrigation projects in India; Water resources development; Crop water requirements; Concepts of irrigation scheduling, Different approaches of irrigation scheduling; Soil water depletion plant indices and climatic parameters; Concept of critical stages of crop growth in relation to water supplies; Crop modeling, crop coefficients, water production functions; Methods of irrigation viz. surface methods, overhead methods, drip irrigation and air conditioning irrigation, merits and demerits of various methods, design and evaluation of irrigation methods; Measurement of irrigation water, application and distribution efficiencies; Management of water resources (rain, canal and ground water) for agricultural production; Agronomic considerations in tile-design and operation of irrigation projects, characteristics of irrigation and family systems affecting irrigation management; lrrigation legislation; Water quality, conjunctive use of water, irrigation strategies under different situation of water availability, optimum crop plans and cropping patterns in canal command areas; Socio-economic aspects of on-farm water management; Irrigation water distribution, Estimation of ET by direct and indirect methods, Irrigation efficiencies; Design of irrigation canals, design of irrigation structures; Interaction between irrigation and fertilizers.
Unit 13 : Management of Problematic Soils and Water
Problem soils and their distribution in India; Salt-affected, acidic, water logged soils; Ground water resources, water quality criteria and use of brackish waters in agriculture; Excess salt and salt tolerant crops; Hydrological imbalances and their corrective measures; Concept of critical water table depths for crop growth; Contribution of shallow water table to crop water requirements; Management strategies for flood prone areas crop and crop calendar for flood affected areas; Drainage for improving water logged soils for crop production; Crop production and alternate use of problematic soils and poor quality water for agricultural and fish production; Amelioration of salt affected soils.
13.2 SOIL SCIENCES/SOIL SCIENCE & AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY
Unit 1: Pedology
Concept of land, soil and soil science. Composition of earth crust and its relationship with soils; Rocks, minerals and other soil forming materials; Weathering of rocks and minerals; Factors of soil formation; Pedogenic processes and their relationships with soil properties; Soil development; Pedon, polypedon, soil profile, horizons and their nomenclature. Soil Taxonomy - epipedons, diagnostic subsurface horizons and other diagnostic characteristics, soil moisture and temperature regimes, categories of the system and their criteria; Interpretation of soil survey data for land capability and crop suitability classifications, Macro-morphological study of soils, Application and use of global positioning system for soil survey. Soil survey- types, techniques. Soil series- characterization and procedure for establishing soil series, benchmark soils and soil correlations. Study of base maps: cadastral maps, toposheets, aerial photographs and satellite imageries. Use of geographical information system for preparing thematic maps. Application of Remote Sensing in soil survey and mapping.
Unit 2: Soil Physics
Soil physical constraints affecting crop production. Soil texture – textural classes. Soil structure – classification, soil aggregation and significance, soil consistency, soil crusting, bulk density and particle density of soils and porosity, their significance and manipulation. Soil water- retention and potentials. Soil moisture constants. Movement of soil water - infiltration, percolation, permeability, drainage and methods of determination of soil moisture. Darcy’s law. Thermal properties of soils, soil temperature, Soil air- composition, gaseous exchange, influence of soil temperature and air on plant growth. Soil erosion by water- types, effects, mechanics. Rain erosivity and soil erodibility. Runoff - methods of measurement, factors and management, runoff farming. Soil conservation measures.
Characterization and evaluation of soil and land quality indicators; Causes of land degradation; Management of soil physical properties for prevention/restoration of land degradation; Identification, monitoring and management of waste lands; Land use-land cover mapping and land use planning using conventional and remote sensing techniques; Concept of watershed – its characterization and management.
Unit 3: Soil Chemistry
Chemical composition of soil; Soil colloids - structure, composition, constitution of clay minerals, amorphous clays and other non-crystalline silicate minerals, oxide and hydroxide minerals; Charge development on clays and organic matter; pH-charge relations; Buffer capacity of soils.
Elements of equilibrium thermodynamics, chemical equilibria , electrochemistry and chemical kinetics. Inorganic and organic colloids- surface charge characteristics, diffuse double layer theories, zeta potential stability, coagulation/ flocculation, peptization, electrometric and sorption properties of soil colloid. Soil organic matter-fractionation, clay-organic interactions. Cation exchange- theories, adsorption isotherms, Donnan-membrane equilibrium concept, clay-membrane electrodes and ionic activity measurement, thermodynamics, anion and ligand exchange- inner sphere and outer-sphere surface complex formation, fixation of oxyanions , hysteresis in sorption-desorption of oxy-anions and anions. Nitrogen, potassium, phosphate and ammonium fixation in soils and management aspects. Chemistry of acid, salt-affected and submerged soils and management aspects.
Unit 4: Soil Fertility
Essential elements in plant nutrition; Nutrient cycles in soil; Transformation and transport of nutrients (Macro and micro nutrients) in soil; Manures and fertilizers; Fate and reactions of fertilizers in soils; Chemistry of production of different fertilizers; Slow release fertilizers and nitrification retarders; Quality control of fertilizers.
Soil fertility evaluation – soil testing, plant and tissue tests and biological methods; Common soil test methods for fertilizer recommendation; Soil test-crop response correlations; Integrated nutrient management; Use of isotopic tracers in soil research; Nature, properties and development of acid, acid sulphate, saline and alkali and their management; Lime and gypsum requirements of soils; Irrigation water quality - EC, SAR, RSC and specifications. Fertility status of major soil groups of India. Application of Remote Sensing in Soil fertility mapping, Watershed management, Degraded land and soil erosion studies. Remote sensing and GIS in Carbon sequestration studies.
Pollution: types, causes, methods of measurement, standards and management. Heavy metal toxicity and soil pollution; Chemical and bio-remediation of contaminated soils; Soil factors in emission of greenhouse gases; Carbon sequestration in mitigating greenhouse effect; Radio-active contamination of soil.
Unit 5: Soil Microbiology
Soil biota, soil microbial ecology, types of organisms. Soil microbial biomass, microbial interactions, unculturable soil biota. Microbiology and biochemistry of root-soil interface. Phyllosphere. Soil enzymes, origin, activities and importance. Soil characteristics influencing growth and activity of microflora. Microbial transformations of N, P, K, S, Fe and Zn in soil. Biochemical composition and biodegradation of soil organic matter and crop residues. Humus formation. Cycles of important organic nutrients. Biodegradation of pesticides, organic wastes and their use for production of biogas and manures. Biofertilizers – definition, classification, specifications, method of production and role in crop production.
Methods of soil analysis - particle size distribution, bulk and particle density, moisture constants, Modern methods of soil, plant and fertilizer analysis; Flame photometry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy; Spectrophotometry - visible, ultra-violet and infrared; Atomic absorption spectrophotometry; Potentiometry and conductimetry; X-ray diffractometry; Mass spectrometry.
Unit 6: Statistics
Experimental designs for pot culture and field experiments; Statistical measures of central tendency and dispersion; Correlation and regression; Tests of significance - t and F tests; Computer use in soil research, Geostatistics.
14. AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS & AGRI-BUSINESS MANAGEMENT
(14.1 Agricultural Economics, 14.2 Agribusiness Management)
14.1 AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
Unit 1: Economic Theory
Scope and methods of economics and agricultural economics, Characteristics of modern production, Problems of application of economic theory of agriculture. Production and consumption units and their peculiarities, Basic economics concepts - statistics. Comparative statics and dynamics equilibrium. Comparative economic systems, Development of economic theory and models. Themes of consumer behaviour -marginal utility, indifference curve (IC) and other models of utility maximization. Price and income consumption curves, Engel curves Elasticity of demand-substitution and income effects, Application of IC analysis -rationing, taxation and subsidy. Theory of production and cost optimizing behaviour of firm, output maximization, cost minimization and profit maximization. Elasticity of supply-substitution, output and profit maximization and profit maximization. Elasticity of supply-substitution, output and profit maximization effects. Optimally approach for joint products. Market classification-pure and perfect competition. Behaviour of the firm and industry. Supply-demand functions. Imperfect competition, monopolistic competition, monopoly, duopoly. Pricing and output decisions. Pricing and output decisions. Price discrimination. Product differentiation applications. Micro and macroeconomic analysis. Working of macro-economic systems. National income accounting. Theory of employment-classical. Keynesian and post Keynesian theories of income determination. Optimal saving and investments. Theory of income distribution and factor shares inflation, deflation, inflationary gap, monetary policy and banking systems.
Unit 2: Economic and Agricultural Development
Concept of economic and agricultural development, characteristics of developing countries, dualism and development, stages and theories of economic development, economic growth models, neo-classical growth models, role of technology in development and choice of techniques, human capital and development, inequality, poverty and migration in developing countries, trade and development, capital and growth, development challenges in developing countries, role of state, markets and civil society in development, institutions and economic development, international development institutions. Objective and processes for economic planning in India, economic and trade reforms in India.
Role of agriculture in economic development, theories of agricultural development, agricultural development challenges, planning and techniques for agricultural development, agricultural development, poverty and environment, application of institutional economics in agricultural development, institutional issues in natural resource management, agricultural policies (price, land, credit, R&D, trade, subsidy, etc.), role of innovations, investment and institutions in agricultural development, agricultural development programmes in India, issues of water, energy, environment, food and nutrition security, agro-eco -regional planning, assessment of ecosystem services, farm-non-farm linkages. Agricultural development in India, China, Latin America and East Asian countries.
Unit 3: Public Finance and International Economics
Public Finance: Public and private finance. General principles of public finance. Principle of maximum social advantage. Public revenue. Incidence of tax and financial policies. Public expenditure and economic development. Balanced and unbalanced budgets. Limitations of fiscal policies. Fiscal policy as an instrument of development. Structure of development taxation. Public debt policy and economic development, international Economics: Principle of comparative advantage. Factor endowment theory, Balance of payments. Problems of international monetary systems, Foreign trade and foreign capital. Export promotion and input substitution. Past experiences and future strategies.
Unit 4: Farm Management Economics
Definition of farm management and its relationship to technical and social sciences. Characteristics of modern farming. Role and functions of farm management under Indian condition. Measurement of management. Measures of farm efficiency. Cost concepts. Evaluation of farm assets and liabilities. Decision theory and decision making models. Decision making under different knowledge situations. Tools and techniques in farm decision making. Farm planning and budgeting-sources of data and illustration. Linear programming. Problem formulation in farm planning. Farm records and accounts. Farm inventory with applications to farming enterprises. Farm cost accounting for managerial analysis. Management of farm resources-land, labour, capital and machinery. Review of farm management research, education and extension in relation to changing needs. Systems approach in agriculture. Farming systems, identification of farming system inputs and outputs, sub-systems and the circuitry connecting these systems. Systems analysis to find out needed changes in policies and programmes.
Unit 5: Agricultural Production Economics
Nature and scope of agricultural production economics vis-à-vis farm management. Relative importance of farm production economics and farm management in developed and developing countries. Economics of farm production- resource allocation and use under static and dynamic conditions. Resource — product relationships in agriculture. Types of production functions. General rules of their economics application. Technological change and production function analysis. Principles of choice and allocation of resources. Resource combination and cost minimization. Types of risk in agriculture, resource allocation and enterprise combination under risk and risk diffusion mechanisms. Nature of costs and family farm theory. Returns to scale and farm size. Derivation of cost and supply functions.
Unit 6: Agricultural Finance and Co-operation
Role of credit in agriculture and rural development. Estimates of agricultural credit requirements-investment, production, marketing and consumption. Role of public and private section banks and cooperatives in development financing. Classification of agricultural credit. Rural credit structure. Principles of agricultural finance and financial management. Agricultural finance as a part of public finance. Agricultural taxation and subsidies, capital in agriculture and sources of capital. Credit and saving -legal aspects of credit. Credit instruments. Farm planning as a basis for extension of agriculture credit. Nexus between commercial banks and cooperative credit institutions. Recent innovations in extension of credit to agriculture. Rural credit supply and credit gap. Multiagency approach and coordination of credit structure at different levels. Agriculture credit policy. Principles and practices of cooperation. Success and failure of cooperative sector in India. Credit and non-credit institutions. National federations of cooperative organizations. Review of reforms in cooperative structure. Single window approach in agricultural input supply and output marketing. Bureaucracy and cooperatives. Management of cooperative institutions. Professionalization and revitalization of cooperatives. Role of cooperatives under new economic policy.
Unit 7: Agricultural Marketing
Nature and scope of marketing in a developing economy. Classification of markets. Problems of marketing agricultural produce. Functions of marketing. Marketable surplus and marketed surplus. Channels of marketing agricultural produce and price spread. Marketing institutions, their role and functions. Regulated markets and other state interventions in agricultural marketing. Role of commission on agriculture cost and prices and parastatal organizations in agricultural marketing. Cooperative marketing. Marketing practices and cost-marketing of grains, pulses, commercial crops, fruits, vegetables, livestock and livestock products and inputs. Processing, transportation, storage and warehousing, equity aspects of marketing. Marketing efficiency. Marketing finance-methods and practices. Forward trading and speculation. Future markets. Market management. Agricultural price analysis. Seasonal and spatial variations in prices in agricultural price policy. Agricultural exports, problems and prospects.
Unit 8: Agricultural Project Analysis
Definition of project in agriculture. Need for project approach for agricultural development. Project cycle. Project identification and formulation. Project appraisal-ex-ante and ex-post. Projection worth measures-discounting techniques. Project monitoring and mid-course corrections. Project funding.
Unit 9: Research Methodology and Econometrics
Agricultural economics research, steps and themes, collection and analysis of economic data, scientific report writing. Optimization, econometric and statistical methods, differential and integral calculus; sampling methods, probability theory. Multiple regression analysis, ordinary and generalized least squares estimators, multicollinearity, heteroscedasticity, autocorrection, dummy variable. Simultaneous equation methods.
14.2 AGRIBUSINESS MANAGEMENT
Unit 1: Basics of Management, Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management
The agribusiness system, management processes, planning, controlling, organizing motivating and leading; decision making; managerial skills; level of managers; organizational context of decisions; decision making models; management by objectives; organizational culture; management of organizational conflicts; managing change; leadership styles; group dynamics; motivation.
Human resource planning, job analysis and design; recruitment, selection, induction and placement; human resource training and development; management development; performance appraisal and job evaluation; wage and salary administration; promotion, transfer, separation, absenteeism and turnover, employee welfare and safety; morale; personnel supervision; styles; participative management; labour management relations; negotiation and negotiating skills; conflict management.
Unit 2: Managerial Accounting and Financial Management
Cost Accounting - Significance of Cost Accounting; Classification of Costs; Marginal Costing and cost volume profit Analysis- Its Significance, Uses and Limitations; Standard Costing - Its Meaning, Uses and Limitations; Determination of Standard cost, Variance Analysis-Material, Labour and Overhead; Accounting for Price Level Changes Concepts, CPP and CCA Methods. Budget and Budgetary Control- Its Meaning, Uses and Limitations. Budgeting and Profit Planning, Different Types of Budgets and their Preparations. Financial Statements- Ratios, Comparative and Common Size Statements, Cash Flow and Funds Flow Analysis.
Fundamentals of accounting and book-keeping; objectives and functions of financial management; analysis of financial statements- balance sheet, income statement, cash flow statement; capital structure theories; concepts of components of working capital, managing working capital - cash management, dividend decision; capital budgeting, appraisal criteria- Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Benefit Cost (B-C) ratio analysis. Importance of agricultural finance; rural credit structure-demand, supply, sources and forms; estimation of credit requirement; cost of credit/capital; credit appraisal- 3 Rs and 3 Cs of credit; reforms in agricultural credit policy; innovations in agricultural financing - microfinance, Kisan credit cards; role of institutions in agri-finance - public and private sector banks; cooperatives, micro- finance institutions (MF1s), SHGs; international financial institutions; principles of agricultural financial management; successes and failures of co-operative sector in India.
Unit 3: Marketing Management and International Marketing of Agri-products
Agricultural marketing system, government interventions including regulated markets, buffer stock operations, price stabilization measures and policies, etc.; Forward trading and futures market; Marketing of agricultural inputs; Rural marketing; role of private sector in input and output marketing; contract farming. Product management, pricing, communication, distribution and marketing information system.
International Marketing: Meaning, nature and importance; An overview of the International marketing management process and environment. International Marketing Segmentation, targeting and Positioning: Screening and selection of markets; International marketing entry strategies: Export- licensing, contract manufacturing, joint venture, setting up of wholly owned subsidiaries abroad.
International Product and Pricing Strategies: Product standardization vs. adaptation; International trade product life cycle, Factors affecting International price determination; Managing International Distribution and Distribution channel strategy. International promotion strategies: communications across countries, international promotion mix-advertising, personal selling, publicity and sales promotion; Standardization vs. adaptation issue. International marketing planning, organizing and control; ecological concerns and international marketing ethics. Key concepts in agri-export, procedures for export planning; analysis of export markets, tools and techniques; for optimizing the export functions.
Unit 4: Production, Operations and Quality Management
Operations management of an agro-industrial unit including operations system and processes; productivity of operations; work force productivity; facilities management; operations planning and control; material and supply chain management; quality management. Importance of quality in the globalized market place, significance of managing quality in manager's total field of concerns, An introduction to Agmark, BIS, ISI and FPO.
GMP/G (good manufacturing and hygienic practices), TQC/TQM (total quality control and total quality management), SQC (Statistical Quality Control), product quality monitoring, HACCP (hazard analysis and critical control points), Codex alimentarius (international quality standards), ISO-9000-standards and certification. Food standards, legislation and internal auditing.
Entrepreneurship for Small Scale Enterprises (SSE); Entrepreneurial Competencies; Institutional Interface. Establishing Small Scale Enterprises: Opportunities Scanning-Choice of Enterprise; Market Assessment for SSE; Choice of Technology and Selection of Site. Small Scale Enterprises-Getting organized: Financing the New/Small enterprises; preparation of the business plan; ownership structure and organizational framework. Financial management issues in SSE; Operations management issues in SSE; Marketing management issues in SSE; Organizational relations in SSE. Management Performance assessment and control; Strategies for stabilization and growth; Managing family enterprises.
Unit 5: Managerial Economics
Scope of managerial economics, objective of the firm and basic economic principles; Consumer theory. Demand analysis - meaning, types and determinants of demand; demand function; demand elasticity; demand forecasting-need and techniques. Production, cost and supply analysis- production function, least-cost input combination, factor productivities and returns to scale, cost concepts, cost-output relationship, Pricing-determinants of price-pricing under different market structures The national income; circular flow of income: consumption, investment and saving: money-functions, demand & supply; inflation; economic growth; business cycles and business policies; Recent developments in the national and international economic and agricultural scenarios.
Unit 6: Operations Research and Research Methods
Objectives, types, and process of research; Problem formulation; Scales of measurement; Sampling, Types of sampling - Probability and non-probability sampling techniques, sample size determination, sampling and non-sampling errors. Role and uses of quantitative techniques in business decision making, Use of introductory statistics, Report writing.
Linear Programming: Objective, Assumptions, Formulation of Linear Programming Problem, Graphic Method, Simplex method; Transportation and Assignment Problems; Inventory control Models, Costs Involved in Inventory Management, Types of Inventory; Waiting Line Models: Waiting Line Problem, Characteristics of a Waiting Line System; Decision making under Risk and uncertainties, Decision tree ; Game Theory- Two -Person Zero-Sum Game; Simulation; Network analysis -PERT & CPM, Markov Chains.
Unit 7: Agribusiness Environment and Policy
Role of agriculture in Indian economy; problems and policy changes relating to farm supplies, farm production, agro processing, agricultural marketing, agricultural finance etc. in the country.
Agribusiness - definition and nature, components of agribusiness management, changing dimensions of agricultural business. Structure of Agriculture - Linkages among sub-sectors of the Agribusiness sector; economic reforms and Indian agriculture; impact of liberalization, privatization and globalization on Agri-business sector. Emerging trends in production, processing, marketing and exports; policy controls and regulations relating to the industrial sector with specific reference to agro-industries. Agribusiness policies- concept and formulation; and new dimensions in Agri-business environment and policy. Agricultural price and marketing policies; public distribution system and other policies. International trade- basic concepts.
Unit 8: Strategic Management
Strategic management - meaning, concept and scope; framework for strategic management; industrial (external) and organizational (internal) environmental factors influencing strategy; scanning the external and internal environment; core competencies and resource strengths; SWOT analysis; strategy formulation and implementation; generic strategies; strategy and technology, strategy and leadership, total quality management, the customer resource, creating competitive advantage, evaluation of strategy.
Unit 9: Project Management and Entrepreneurship Development
Concept, characteristics of projects, types of projects, project identification, and Project's life cycle; Project feasibility- market feasibility, technical feasibility, financial feasibility, and economic feasibility, social cost-benefit analysis, project risk analysis; Network Methods; Project scheduling and resource allocation; Financial appraisal/evaluation techniques; Project control and information system. Entrepreneurship, Significance of entrepreneurship in economic development qualities of entrepreneur, entrepreneurship development programs and role of various institutions in developing entrepreneurship, life cycles of new business, environmental factors affecting success of a new business, reasons for the failure and visible problems for business, Developing effective business plans, Procedural steps in setting up of an industry.
15. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION
(15.1 Agricultural Extension/Extension Education/Communication)
15.1 AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION/EXTENSION EDUCATION/COMMUNICATION
Unit 1: Fundamentals of Extension and Communication
Concepts and scope of extension and communication particularly for primary and secondary agriculture. Historical and emerging perspectives of agricultural, veterinary and animal husbandry extension education in India and other countries. Community Development and Integrated Rural Development- concept, principles and objectives. Role of agricultural extension in different sectors of agriculture and rural development. Agricultural Extension in the context of enhancing productivity, Quality, Nutrition, post-harvest technology, product processing, Profitability, Income and Employment. Concepts of yield gaps. FLD and OFT in relation to TOT programmes. Farming System Research and Extension (FSR&E) and participatory development approaches. Concept and modules of communication, credibility, fidelity, empathy and feedback in communication. Similarities and dissimilarities among extension education, adult education and continuing/distance education. Andragogy and theories of adult learning. Human behavioural dimensions and gender sensitivity in extension education programmes. Meaning and characteristics of attitude, factors affecting attitude change; Understanding of basic rural institutions, social structure, culture and norms. Social and technological change processes, group dynamics, concepts and theories of rural leadership. Group and mass communication, Interpersonal and Intrapersonal Communication Skills, Key communicators and their role in agriculture and animal husbandry development. Acquiring communication skills for development of local leaders and key communicators for agriculture and livestock development. Organizational communication. Rapport building with clientele. Problems and barriers in communication; distortion and noise in communication. Importance of feedback in agriculture and veterinary extension, impact analysis of extension programmes.
Unit 2: Extension Methods & Farm Journalism
Concepts of teaching and learning processes–principles of learning as applied to agricultural extension. Individual, group and mass approaches in extension, audio-visual aids- classification, selection, use and production. Traditional media for communication in development programmes. Modularized communication- concept, approach, need, process of designing instruction for transfer of communication. Basics of agricultural journalism, types of publications – bulletins, folders, leaflets, booklets, newsletters, popular and scientific articles. Selection, planning and use of different extension teaching methods like demonstration, exhibition, farmers fairs, field days, tours, extension literature, etc. Preparation and presentation of different projected and non-projected audio-visual aids. Public speaking. Preparation of radio/video script. Principles of photography and its use in extension.
Unit 3: Information Communication Technologies (ICT)
Concept of ICT and its role in agriculture and rural development. ICT tools- print and electronic media, e-mail, Internet, use of multimedia, use of mobile phony, video and teleconferencing, computer-assisted instructions, touch screens, micro-computers, web technologies and information kiosks. Networking system of information and challenges in the use of ICT. E-learning, information resources, sharing and networking. Types of network – PAN, LAN, WAN, Internet, AGRINET, AKIS, Indian National Agricultural Research database. ICT programmes in agriculture and livestock development, Problems and prospects of ICTs in agriculture and livestock development, Digitization, Simulation models, Utilization of Internet for promoting advanced agriculture, veterinary and animal husbandry practices; communication with farmers and rural, semi-urban and urban livestock owners.
Unit 4: Training & Human Resource Development
Human resources and their importance in agricultural development. Concept of human resource management. Training and development of human resources. Identifying training needs and assessment of training impact. Training – principles, importance, methods and factors. Phases of training - pre training and post training. Developing training modules, training requirements, training methods. Lecture cum demonstration method, case method, group brain storming, syndicate method, business games, simulation exercises, in basket exercise, programmed instruction, experiential learning techniques such as sensitivity training, T-group, transactional analysis and fish bowl exercise. Evaluation of training - types and techniques of training evaluation. Motivation, stress management and organizational behaviour as facilitators of human resource development. Capacity Building in relation to agriculture, Dairying, Poultry, Piggery, Goat and Sheep farming, cottage industries, Rabbit farming, Apiculture, Sericulture, Biofertilizer, Floriculture, and Biopesticides.
Unit 5: Research Methodology in Extension Education
Social research- concept, principles and approach. Selection and identification of research problems, methods of data collection- interview method and mailed questionnaires, variables -meaning and types, independent, dependent and intervening variables. Hypothesis – concept, characteristics, types and testing. MAXMINCON principle, Research design - concept and types, field studies, case studies and survey method. Measurement – meaning and levels. Methods of sampling and statistical tests. Reliability and validity of tests, normal distribution, tests of significance, ANOVA, correlation and regression, scaling techniques. Processing of data, coding - tabulation. Analysis and interpretation. Writing scientific reports, citing references. Participatory approaches, PRA, RRA, PLA and PTD.
Unit 6: Programme Planning, Evaluation & Diffusion and Adoption of Innovations
Concept, steps, principles and theories of programme planning. Steps in programme planning for agriculture and livestock development, organizing campaigns, mass vaccination programmes and variety of extension activities, evaluation of veterinary extension programmes, compilation and report writing. Evaluation of agriculture and animal husbandry development programmes and schemes. Monitoring and evaluation – concept, significance, types, methods and tools. Theoretical models of programme planning. Felt needs; need-based programmes. Social action. Five Year Plans – critical analysis with special reference to programmes for women, children and youth. SWOT/TOWS analysis of development programmes. Concept and elements of diffusion and adoption for social change. Diffusion process, adoption process, models of diffusion and adoption, adopter categories and their characteristics. Factors influencing adoption and attributes of innovations. Concept and stages of Innovation-decision process, consequences of innovations.
Unit 7: Extension Management
Concept and principles of administration and management, classical and modern theories, schools of management thought. Functions of management – planning, organizing, staffing, directing and leading, controlling, coordinating, reporting and budgeting. Types and methods of administrative communication. Decision-making in organization. Organizational effectiveness, organizational climate, organizational behaviour, organizational development, job satisfaction and morale. Time management. Performance appraisal. Coordination at different levels of extension management, methods of coordination. Management by Objective (MBO) and Total Quality Management (TQM). Project Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT). Logical Frame Working (LFW) and Project Management Techniques. Personal management, scope of Agribusiness Management and Institutions - National Institute of Agricultural Extension and Management (MANAGE). Indian Institute of Plantation Management (IIPM), NIRD, EEl and NAARM. Monitoring, evaluation and impact analysis of extension programmes. Critical analysis of organizational set up of extension administration at various levels. Agricultural Technology Information Centers (ATIC). Technology Parks. Management Information System. Management of Agricultural Knowledge System (MAKS) and use of Expert System. Traditional media for communication in development programmes. Problem Solving Techniques / Negotiation , Motivational Theories & Techniques, Work motivation Organizational climate; Resource management: concept and methods; Team building: process and strategies at organizational and village levels. Mobilization and empowerment skills: concept and strategies in mobilization, concretisation and empowerment of rural people.
Unit 8: Entrepreneurial Development
Concept, significance and scope. Programmes and agencies promoting entrepreneurship. Types and techniques of training for developing entrepreneurial activities in various areas. Self Help Groups – concepts, organization, mobilization, micro-finance and functioning of SHG for empowerment and sustainability. Agripreneurship- agriclinics and agribusiness centers. International cooperation in agriculture - SAIC, Commonwealth, FAO, USAID, DFID and CGIAR system. Critical analysis of extension systems of SAARC, BRICS and other selected countries (USA, UK, Japan, Philippines, Israel etc.).
Unit 9: Developmental Strategies and Issues in Extension
Extension policies. National Agricultural Extension System and Networking of State development Departments, NARS, NGOs, Farmers Organizations, producers companies, agricultural cooperatives, rural banks, insurance and private sectors. History of Agriculture and Veterinary extension programmes- NPCBB, PM assistance livestock development programmes and rural development programmes. Developmental strategies such as Watershed Development Programmes; Technology Mission, Horticulture Mission. Front Line Extension Programmes of ICAR/TAR-IVLP, NATP, NAIP, IRDP, ATMA, ITD, SREP, Research-Extension-Farmer-Interface. Identification, characterization, documentation and validation of ITKs. Privatization of extension, market led extension, production to consumption and end to end innovative approaches. Issues related to globalization and IPR. Rural, Agricultural, Animal Husbandry, Dairy and Women Developmental Programmes implemented by Govt. of India. Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs).
Unit 10: Gender Sensitization and Empowerment
Gender and empowerment: meaning, gender related definitions and importance for empowering women; need and focus on gender sensitization, gender in community diversity and its implication for empowerment. Gender perspectives in development of women, social characteristics, roles, responsibilities, resources, constraints, legal issues and opportunities; economical, educational and other parameters. Gender tools and methodologies: Dimensions and methodologies for empowerment; gender budgeting; gender analysis framework- context, activities, resources and programme action profile; technologies and empowerment - gender specific technologies, household technology interface, socio-cultural interface and women as consumer of technologies. Gender issues and development: health and nutrition, violence, governance, education and media, Gender Audit.
16. AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS
(16.1 Agricultural Statistics)
16.1 AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS
Unit 1: Statistical Methods I
Descriptive statistics. Elements of probability theory, conditional probability, Bayes’ theorem. Random variable-discrete and continuous. Mathematical expectation. Moment generating and characteristic functions. Laws of large numbers. Central limit theorem. Discrete probability distributions-binomial, Poisson, negative binomial and hypergeometric. Continuous probability distributions-normal, rectangular, Cauchy exponential, gamma and beta. Sampling distributions-chi-square, t, and F. Bivariate normal distribution-conditional and marginal.
Point estimation-unbiasedness, consistency, efficiency, sufficiency. Completeness Minimum variance unbiased estimator. Cramer-Rao Inequality. Rao-Blackwell theorem and Lehman-Scheffe theorem. Methods of point estimation like Maximum likelihood, Moments, Minimum chi-square. Confidence interval estimation. Testing of hypotheses -two types of errors, level of significance and power of a test. Neyman-Pearson Lemma. Uniformly most powerful tests and their construction. Unbiased test, Likelihood ratio test. Tests of significance based on Z, t, chi-square and F distributions.
Unit 2: Statistical Methods II
Correlation, rank correlation, correlation ratio, intra-class correlation. Simple and multiple regression analysis, partial and multiple correlation. Examination of residuals. Model-adequacy, Selecting best regression. Order statistics. Non-parametric tests-run, sign, rank, Wilcoxon, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, Cochran and Friedman’s tests. Contingency tables. Log linear models. Sequential analysis sequential probability ratio test. Elements of stochastic processes. Multivariate normal distribution-estimation of mean vector and dispersion matrix. Wishart distribution, Hotelling T2, multivariate analysis of variance, principal component analysis, factor analysis, discriminant analysis, cluster analysis.
Unit 3: Statistical Genetics I
Statistical analysis of segregation, detection and estimation of linkage. Gene and genotypic frequencies. Random mating and equilibrium in large populations. Disequilibrium due to linkages for two pairs of genes and for sex linked genes. Selection, mutation and migration. Equilibrium between forces in large population. Polymorphism. Fisher’s fundamental theorem of natural selection. Polygenic systems for quantitative characters, Concepts of breeding value, dominance, average effect of gene and epistatic interactions.
Unit 4: Statistical Genetics II
enetic variance and its partitioning. Correlation between relatives. Regular system of inbreeding, effects of inbreeding. Genotype and environment interaction, stability parameters. Estimation of heritability, repeatability and genetic correlation. Path coefficient analysis. Heterosis, concepts of general and specific combining abilities. Diallel crosses and line × tester analysis. Response due to selection. Prediction of response to individual, family and combined selections. Construction of selection index.
Unit 5: Design of Experiments I
Linear models-Random, fixed and mixed effects. Nested and crossed classifications. Gauss-Markoff theorem. Analysis of variance. Principles of design of experiments. Uniformity trials. Completely randomized design. Randomized complete block design. Latin square design. Factorial experiments-2n and 3n series and asymmetrical factorial experiments, confounding in 2n and 3n experiments, split and strip-plot designs, change over designs. Missing plot techniques. Analysis of covariance. Variance stabilizing transformations.
Unit 6: Design of Experiments II
Balanced incomplete block designs and their analysis with and without recovery of inter block information. Partially balanced incomplete block designs with two associate classes, lattice designs. Youden square design. Multiple comparison procedures. Fractional replication of symmetrical factorials, confounding in asymmetrical factorial experiments. Response surface designs, second order rotatable designs. Combined analysis of groups of experiments. Sampling in field experiments. Experiments on cultivators’ fields.
Unit 7: Sample Surveys I
Sampling versus complete enumeration. Concept of probability sampling. Simple random sampling. Stratified sampling, allocation in stratified sampling, choice of strata, construction of strata boundaries and collapsing of strata. Use of auxiliary information in sample surveys, ratio and regression methods of estimation. Systematic sampling. Cluster and multi-stage sampling with equal probability.
Unit 8: Sample Surveys II
Sampling with unequal probabilities with and without replacement, sampling schemes with inclusion
probabilities proportional to size. Unbiased ratio type of estimators, Double sampling, sampling on successive occasions, inverse sampling. Non-sampling errors-sources and classification. Non-response in surveys interpenetrating sub-samples, randomized response techniques, imputation methods. Design and organization of pilot and large scale surveys. National sample surveys. Agricultural statistics system in the country-land use statistics, crop estimation surveys, livestock and fishery statistics.
Unit 9: Computer Applications
Computer Organization and Architecture- number system, input/output unit, memory, arithmetic logic unit and control unit. Computer algorithms. Programming in C-Building blocks, control structures, arrays, pointers, dynamic memory allocation, file management. Data Structures linked list, stack, queue, tree, graph, sorting and searching algorithms. Data Base Management System-definition and features, data models, relational database. Object oriented programming-encapsulation, inheritance, polymorphism with C++/JAVA. Networking-need, basic concepts, types of networks. Connecting computers-local area networks, wide area networks. Value added network services-E-mail, on-line services, Internet, etc. Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML), Building static and dynamic web pages.
Numerical analysis interpolation, numerical integration, solution of ordinary differential equations, solution of linear and non-linear system of equations. Modeling and simulation-random number generation and testing, discrete simulation models, simulation of stochastic events and processes, design of simulation experiments, analysis of data generated by simulation experiments, validation of simulation models. Linear Programming formulation and graphical solution, simplex method, duality, transportation and assignment problems.
NOTE 4: The syllabus mentioned above is illustrative only. Questions relating to recent/current developments taking place in agriculture and allied sciences in general and in the concerned subject areas in particular can also be included in the question papers as may be deemed appropriate by subject-paper experts.